Women and Barriers to their Financial well being/ Barriers for women in relation to financial security

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2.2 Women and Barriers to their Financial well being/ Barriers for women in relation to financial security There are different circumstances faced by women that may create barriers in becoming financially secured in their lives (Morris, 2007). Formal Financial barriers A key constraint for women is the access to adequate financial resources for the success of their business (Minniti, 2009; Jordi, 2009). Different researchers have made the attempt to see how financial institutions behave towards women while granting funds. Empirical studies have established the influence of financial literacy on financial behavior. People with low financial literacy are more likely to have problems with debts (Lusardi & Tofano, 2009). Apparently, debt financing is a challenge for women entrepreneurs (Buttner and Rosen, 1992) because of unequal treatment by debt providers, lack of experience in dealing with lending institutions and insufficient credit history and rating (Belcourt et al, 1991; Goffee & Scase, 1983; Hisrich & Brush, 1984). As an example, Kenyan women are almost invisible to formal financial institutions they receive less than 10 percent of commercial credits (Mahbubultlag Human Development Center, 2000). According to the UNIDO report (1995), “despite evidence that woman’s loan repayment rates are higher than men’s, women’s still face more difficulties in obtaining credit,” often due to the discriminatory attitudes of banks and informal lending groups. In developing countries, women have limited access to funds as they are located in poor rural communities with fewer opportunities to borrow (Starcher, 2008). These women continue to suffer from poor enforcement of financial rights and the existence of poor access to financial resources long with the rigidity of collateral requirements and heavy paperwork are further impediments to women entrepreneurs (Stevenson and Jarillo, 2003). Not surprisingly, women struggle for financial assistance as well for their own use. In most regions of the world, fewer women held a account at a formal financial institutiton whereas Sub-Saharan Africa, women are more likely to use an informal saving clubs and not a formal financial institution to save as compared to men. Also, financial inclusion is low in Mexico among women whereby only 22% women have bank accounts (Demirguc-kunt and Klapper, 2012). On the whole, proper access to financial services provides opportunity for improving women’s businesses and the economy of the entire communities and countries. Informal barriers Besides, the home environment plays a role in financial literacy. Parents have the primary responsibility to inculcate financial habits and behaviors to children when they are young (Into, 2003). They have the greatest influence on the way children handle money and instill the attitudes their children have towards saving (Eikmeier, 2007). “Children learn financial management behavior through observation and participation and through intentional instruction by socialized agents (family, siblings, spouse, peers, schools, workplace, media and culture)” (Eikmeier, 2007, p.6). Social beliefs “commonly fail to value women’s contribution to relationships and as a result, women may fail to fight for their financial rights as they themselves lack experience of this recognition” (Branigan, 2004, p.16). From a gender outlook,

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