Wireless sensor networks academia

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Wireless sensor networks

Mitigating performance degradation in congested wireless sensor networks

CHAPTER 1: WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

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1.1 Introduction:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs)[1] have attracted tremendous attention in both academia and industry in recent years. A WSN consists of one or more sinks and perhaps tens or thousands of sensor nodes scattered in an area. The upstream traffic from sensor nodes to the sink is many-to-one multi-hop convergent. A WSN consists of one or more sinks and perhaps tens or thousands of sensor nodes scattered in an area. The upstream traffic can be classified into four delivery models: event-based, continuous, query-based, and hybrid delivery. Due to the convergent nature of upstream traffic, congestion more probably appears in the upstream direction. Congestion that can leads to packet losses and increased transmission latency has Congestion control generally follows three steps congestion detection, congestion notification, and rate-adjusting. Congestion control protocol efficiency depends on how much it can achieve the following performance objectives: (i) First, energy-efficiency requires to be improved in order to extend system lifetime. Therefore congestion control protocols need to avoid or reduce packet loss due to buffer overflow, and remain lower control overhead that will consume additional energy more or less. (ii) Second, fairness needs to be observed so that each node can achieve fair throughput. Fairness can be achieved through rate-adjustment and packet scheduling (otherwise referred to as queue management) at each sensor node. (iii) Furthermore, support of traditional quality of service (QoS) metrics such as packet loss ratio and packet delay along with throughput may also be necessary. There are several congestion control protocols for sensor networks. They differ in the way that they detect congestion, broadcast congestion related information, and the way that they adjust traffic rate. CCF (Congestion Control and Fairness) exactly adjusts traffic rate based on packer service time along with fair packet scheduling algorithms, while Fusion in performs stop-and-start non-smooth rate adjustment to mitigate congestion. CODA jointly uses end-to-end and hop-by-hop controls. Both CODA and ARC employ AIMD-like (Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease) coarse rate adjustment .The existing congestion control protocols for WSNs only guarantee simple fairness, which means that the sink receives the same throughput from all nodes. In fact, sensor nodes might be either outfitted with different sensors or geographically deployed in different place and therefore they may have different importance or priority need to gain different throughput. Therefore weighted fairness is required to make sensor nodes get a throughput proportional to their priority. This paper investigates the problem of upstream congestion control in WSNs. We propose a new priority-based congestion control protocol (PCCP). Our contribution includes: We use packet inter-arrival time and packet service time in order to produce a measure of congestion. By incorporating information about packet inter-arrival time and the packet service time,

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