The best way to think about the Civil War in general terms is as the Second Act of Americas Democratic revolution. The first act was freeing itself from the control of the British empire in the 1770s and the second act was removing the massive contradiction between the rhetoric of American freedom and the reality that 20 percent of Americas population were forcibly enslaved.
There were multiple causes to the civil war.
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Cause #1 was different Economic Paths in North and South. By the beginning of the 1800s, the United States is technically one country, but its really two distinct economic systems. In the North, you have the growth and evolution of a powerful industrial and financial economies (similar to the Federalist partys economic and political path) like factories and manufacturing, small independent farmers who provide food and raw materials for manufacturing, banks, merchants, etc. This is an economy that is ADVANCING, investing in and constantly coming up with new technologies, figuring out how to offer up new products with ever greater efficiency Northern industrialists want the ability to hire and fire workers depending on the needs of their business (running factories efficiently requires adjusting the size of your workforce week to week, month to month, etc.). In the South, you have plantation agriculture BIG farms powered by the labor of enslaved African-Americans (by the 1800s the most important crop in the US is cotton)
This is similar to the Anti-Federalist desires for the nation with the major contradiction being the size and scope of plantation farming. Southern planters cling to this system because they can work slaves harder,
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