What is Lung Cancer?

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Cancer is a disease caused by out of control abnormal cell divisions. Cancer harms the body and its organ systems when abnormal cells divide in an uncontrolled way to form tumors and lumps that affect the tissues in the body. There are many different types of cancers such as lung cancer, breast cancer, blood cancer.

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Cancer can start in any part of the body. Human cells divide and form trillions of new cells every single day. When cancer develops in the body, this orderly process breaks down. Cells become abnormal, damaged or even old and are being produced even if they are not needed. The uncontrollable growth of these cells can cause cancer.

Doctors characterize cancer in 4 stages. The stages differentiate the size of cancer and how far it has spread out or grown in the body. Sometimes if the cancer is in one place, the doctor may recommend to get surgery done or even a radiotherapy done to get rid of the cancer completely. But if the cancer is spread to various parts of the body. Then you might need to get systematic treatments which include chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted cancer drugs.

There are 2 main types of staging systems for cancer. These are the TNM system and the number system. TNM stands for Tumor, Node, Metastasis. This systems helps doctors identify the size and location of the cancer and where its affecting the body.

  • T refers to the size of the cancer and how far it has spread into nearby tissueit can be 1, 2, 3 or 4, with 1 being small and 4 large
  • N refers to whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodesit can be between 0 (no lymph nodes containing cancer cells) and 3 (lots of lymph nodes containing cancer cells)
  • M refers to whether the cancer has spread to another part of the bodyit can either be 0 (the cancer hasn’t spread) or 1 (the cancer has spread)” (cancerresearchuk.org)

The number stage uses the same method to divide cancer into 4 stages. The 1st stage means that the cancer is small and can be controlled or diagnosed. But as the stages move on, the cancer gets worse and if the cancer reaches stage 4. It is impossible to treat it and the patient will die within a few months unfortunately .

There are many causes of cancer such as alcohol consumption, obesity, diet, hormones, cancer causing substances, radiation and tobacco. In the U.S tobacco is the leading cause of lung cancer. People who smoke or are around that environment have an increase risk of having lung cancer. As tobacco such as cigarettes and cigar pipes has many chemicals that damages the DNA.

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