How is “good” determined: By what is best for the greatest number of people and by those consequences.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): Jeremy Bentham & Stuart Mill
Major Strengths: Encouraging all human welfare and the end-justifies-the-means.
Major Weaknesses: Finding all the consequences for all in society is complex. When do the end-justifies-the-means for all in society?
How is “good” determined: By Self-interest and what will serve that person and solely that person.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): Epicurus
Major Strengths: Every person ought to carry out in self-interest no matter what the outcome. Encourages individual freedom and responsibility for their actions.
Major Weaknesses: Contradictory to one’s own self-interest when related too all in society. Cannot show a consistent method of dealing with conflicts with others.
Ethics of Care
How is “good” determined: The theory that caring for others and sensitivity to others is important for a moral life.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): Carol Gilligan
Major Strengths: One should carry out with caring and compassion in all actions. A person should constantly consider others and the consequences of their actions towards them early.
Major Weaknesses: May lead others to look at gender as a system to the guide as too who is best and not perfect equality of gender. May only change one incomplete theory with another incomplete theory.
How is “good” determined: Look at what’s good no matter what the consequences are to be positive/negative.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): Immanuel Kant
Major Strengths: Must be logical and not self-contradictory. Must still be effective to create a universal rule for all in society.