Performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are used to increase performance activity. They are widely known from their usage in sports for the increase of performance. They are also used to treat immune system disorders and inflammation.
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Different types are: Anabolic steroids, Androstenedione, Human Growth hormone, Erythropoietin, Diuretics, Creatine, Stimulants. The usage of steroids by athletes has lead to the making of designer steroids; these are made to be undetectable in drug tests. Although lots of athletes have been caught even after these existed. This resulted in cheating scandals, athletes being banned, and stripped of their titles. Along with this comes the negative side effects even after these athletes are forced to stop using them.
Anabolic steroids is a drug that increases the amount testosterone produced in humans. They are usually taken orally, injected into a muscle, or used in a topical gel or patch. Short term effects can lead to mental issues such as: paranoia, irritability, impaired judgement, delusions, and violent behavior. Long term effects include kidney, heart, and liver damage. The abuse of these steroids can also lead to a significant change in mood and behavior because of the change in the amount of chemicals released in the brain. Many who abuse anabolic steroids will use them in cycles. They go on and off them to try to avoid side effects, although there are still long-term risks from this. Also injecting anabolic steroids increases the risk of coming in contact with blood-borne diseases like HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C. Several reports have described men with little or no apparent history of violence or criminal behavior prior to [steroid] use who committed murder or attempted murder while using [steroids]. (Kanayama, 2010)
Human Growth hormones are produced in the pituitary gland which prompts growth in children and adults. They are used to increase muscle mass, bone growth and decrease adipose tissue. Synthetic human growth hormones were developed in 1985 and shortly after approved by FDA for uses in children and adults. They are only used through injection which must be prescribed. The most common usage for them are not FDA approved are used along with other PEDs to increase athletic performance. Negative effects of abuse of this steroid is edema (build up of fluid inside your body), joint pain, and muscle weakness. Human growth hormone s and growth factors are banned by WADA (World Doping Agency).
Erythropoietin is originally used to treat anemia, but it is used commonly now to increase the oxygen carried from your lungs to the rest of your body. It is a chemical released from your kidneys, and promotes the production of red blood cells. This specific type of hormone increases the excretion of water from the body which in turn cleans out the body.
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