The improvement of these abilities is quite important for a volleyball player, being the muscular strength many times the priority for the young athlete. Several studies have reported significant improvements in vertical jump following resistance training (Baker et al, 1994 ) and (Stone et al, 1981).The purpose of strength training for volleyball is not to build big muscles, but to develop the physical characteristics necessary to improve a player’s performance. Strength training is very important to volleyball and however, should not be developed independently from other abilities such as agility, speed and endurance. This program is designed mainly to improve the skill of vertical jump in volleyball for players with moderate to advanced experience.
Needs analysis focuses on the fitness needs of both the activity (vertical jump) and the athlete involved in the sport (volleyball).
Successful participation in volleyball sport requires expertise in many physical skills and performance is often dependent on an individual’s ability to propel themselves into the air during both offensive and defensive manoeuvres. These movements include the jump serve, spike, and block. During the carrying out of a jump serve or a spike, the player jumps high into the air and strikes the ball at the highest point of their jump in an effort to propel the ball rapidly down towards the opposing side of the net. Defensively, front row players defend against spikes by jumping into the air with their hands raised in an effort to impede the offensive attack. Unlike offensive jumps, defensive jumps are not maximal vertical jump efforts. There are many factors that are involved in an athlete’s vertical jump and many factors that are involved in improving an athlete’s vertical jump. Vertical jump mainly involves use of the lower limbs. However, the upper limbs play an important role in vertical jump activity. Feltner et al (1999) and Harman et al (1990) concluded that using an arm swing during vertical jumping improved performance over no arm swing. An upward swing causes a downward force on the trunk which in turn slows the rate of contraction of the leg muscles allowing the muscles to contract at a slower velocity and thus generates more force. The fact that an arm swing is so important to vertical jumping performance, may indicate that there is a technique or skill component to vertical jumping, rather than just leg power (Young, 1995). Another biomechanical aspect of vertical jump is the bi-lateral deficit. Bi-lateral deficit results in different heights one-leg versus two-leg vertical jump. The maximal height achieved from one-legged jump is approximately 60% of the maximal two-legged height (Challis, 1998). The possible reason for this deficit may be a neuromuscular adaptation. One-leg jump requires a maximal recruitment of muscle fibres due to less muscle mass available. Furthermore, the height that is achieved by the vertical jump has a direct correlation with the amount of force that is produced by the muscle fibres. This force is created by a phenomenon known as the stretch-shortening cycle of muscle fibres.
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