Act utilitarianism is an action that is morally required just because it does more to improve overall well-being than any other action you could have done in the circumstances. The principle of utility states that you should always perform the action that maximizes overall utility. Act utilitarianism and the principle of utility is a large portion of what I am going to refer to in this essay.
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The moral worth of any action is determined by outcome or consequences which explains why utilitarianism is a version of consequentialism. Utilitarianism is a form of teleological ethics. This idea is defended by John Stuart Mill (a hedonist), and an important British philosopher.
A hedonist is a person who believes that the pursuit of pleasure is the most important thing in life; a pleasure-seeker. According to his beliefs, we are required to maximize the greatest good for the greatest good for the greatest number of people. I am defending an objection to this claim that utilitarianism has no real way to account for rights and that there is no action that is ruled immoral under this argument. In addition to this the argument of utilitarianism is ambiguous. The objection that I am defending states that (1) If utilitarianism is true, then it will never require us to commit serious injustices. (2) Utilitarianism sometimes requires us to commit serious injustices. So, (3) Utilitarianism is not true. Just because something makes all people happy does not make it right for all people. It is also wrong to harm certain individuals in order to make other people happy.
The objection I am defending calls attention to problems to justice and in the rights of the individual and democratic equality. The first justice-related objection I am going to defend is problem of the violation of rights, for example, if there is a religious group whose practices are seen as offensive to the rest or majority of society.
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