Usefulness Of Financial Information Towards Using Financial Statements Finance Essay

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Financial statements are the statements that show the performance of an individual's, a business' or an organization's financial position or status. Basically there are four types of financial statements that include Balance Sheet, Income Statement, Cash Flow Statement and Statement of Retained Profits or Earnings. Users of financial statements can be divided into two following categories Internal Users External Users

Internal Users

Internal users are the users related with the management of concern for which information is required to be collected or surveyed. They are Managers, Employees, Directors and Partners of the business.

Managers and Owners

Managers, directors and owners needed the financial statements to make business decisions. They are considered essential for the smooth flow of business operations. They set outs the current and actual financial position of the business and the future of the business can be sought on basis of past financial statements. Sometimes it becomes very difficult to choose or decide the right path for the business in which financial resources may be channelized. In such case financial statements financial statements of competitors or other companies provide suitable guideline.

EmployeesÂ

The immense usage of the financial statements is to the employees of the business to collective bargain agreements. These statements are used to discuss matters of promotion, salary or rankings alike.

External Users

External users of financial statements are as follows Investors Investors Suppliers Customers Competitors Government agencies Public

Investors

Investors use financial statements to make decisions to invest into a business. Investors are always keen to make their investment safe and secure. Investors always needed to know that how their investment i.e. money being spent by the managers.

Lenders

Lenders supply or provide finance to the business on agreed rate of interest for shorter or longer period of time.

Suppliers

In a business commodities are sold and purchase on credit basis. Suppliers provide goods and services to business on credit basis. The suppliers always use financial statement to assure by analyzing financial statements that the business to whom they ate supplying goods and services on credit have the ability to repay the price of goods and services provided.

Customer

Customers are also user of financial statements of a business. Here question arises Why do customer need financial statements of a business? The answer is customers want to know that either the business whose goods and services they are going to use or utilize have enough resources to lend them.

Competitors

Competitors are also users of financial statements of the business to know the financial situation of the business to make decisions and strategies to conquer the market. New entrants needed likelihood to get into the market.

Government Agencies

Government agencies and legislation authorities also interested into the financial statements of the business for the purpose of legislation, taxation, regulation of labor and permission of license etc.

General Public

For members of the public the financial statement of the business is of the nature of a health examination report. It tells the public about employment opportunities and general growth of an individual concern and an economy as a whole.

Evaluate the performance of a company of your choice with an organisation trading within the same industry. (Use appropriate ratios. Attach the copy of the financial statements of both companies

Accounting Ratios for Nokia Corporation Ltd

For the year 2008

Liquidity Ratios:

Current Ratio:

Current Assets / Current Liabilities X 100 24470 / 20355 X 100 120%

Absolute Liquid Ratio:

Cash + cash Equivalents / Current Liabilities X 100 6820 / 20355 X 100 33.5%

Quick (Acid Test) Ratio:

Current Assets - inventories / Current Liabilities X 100 21937 / 20335 X 100 107.8%

Profitability Ratios:

GP Margin Ratio:

Sales - CGS / Sales X 100 17373 / 50710 X 100 34.26%

Net Profit to Net Sales Ratio:

Net Profit / Net Sales X 100 4970 / 50710 X100 9.8%

Earnings Per Share Ratio:

Net Profit Payable / Number of shares 3988 / 1000 3.988 Per share

Solvency (Coverage) Ratios:

Debt to Total Asset Ratio:

Total Debts / Total Assets X 100 20355 / 39582 X 100 51.42%

Activity Ratios:

Primary Activity Ratios:

Debtor Turnover Ratio:

Net credit sales / Avg. Debtors 50710 / 10322 4.91 Note: All the sales are assumed as credit sales

Inventory Turnover Ratio:

CGS / Avg. Inventory 33337 / 2704.5 12.32

Asset turnover Ratio:

Sales / avg. total assets 50710 / 241670.5 0.21

Supplementary Activity Ratios:

Avg. Collection Period:

365 / Debtors turnover ratio 365 / 4.91 74.33 days

Inventory Conversion Period:

365 / Inventory turnover ratio 365 / 12.32 29.62 ~ 30 days

Accounting Ratios for Nokia Corporation Ltd

For the year 2007

Liquidity Ratios:

Current Ratio:

Current Assets / Current Liabilities X 100 29294 / 18976 X 100 154.37%

Absolute Liquid Ratio:

Cash + Cash Equivalents / Current Liabilities X 100 6850 / 18976 X 100 36.1%

Quick (Acid Test) Ratio:

Current Assets - inventories / Current Liabilities X 100 26418 / 18976 X 100 139.23%

Profitability Ratios:

GP Margin Ratio:

Sales - CGS / Sales X 100 17304 / 51058 X 100 33.9%

Net Profit to Net Sales Ratio:

Net Profit / Net Sales X 100 8268 / 51058 X100 16.2%

Earnings Per Share Ratio:

Net Profit Payable / Number of shares 8268 / 1000 8.268 Per share

Solvency (Coverage) Ratios:

Debt to Total Asset Ratio:

Total Debts / Total Assets X 100 18976 / 37599 X 100 50.47%

Activity Ratios:

Primary Activity Ratios:

Debtor Turnover Ratio:

Net credit sales / Avg. Debtors 51058 / 8544 5.97 Note: All the sales are assumed as credit sales

Inventory Turnover Ratio:

CGS / Avg. Inventory 33754 / 2210 15.27

Asset turnover Ratio:

Sales / avg. total assets 51058 / 30108 1.7

Supplementary Activity Ratios:

Avg. Collection Period:

365 / Debtors turnover ratio 365 / 5.97 61.13 days

Inventory Conversion Period:

365 / Inventory turnover ratio 365 / 15.27 23.9 ~ 24 days

Accounting Ratios for Nokia Corporation Ltd

For the year 2006

Liquidity Ratios:

Current Ratio:

Current Assets / Current Liabilities X 100 18586 / 10161 X 100 182.9%

Absolute Liquid Ratio:

Cash + Cash Equivalents / Current Liabilities X 100 8537 / 10161 X 100 84.02%

Quick (Acid Test) Ratio:

Current Assets - inventories / Current Liabilities X 100 17029 / 10161 X 100 167.62%

Profitability Ratios:

GP Margin Ratio:

Sales - CGS / Sales X 100 13379 / 41121 X 100 32.54%

Net Profit to Net Sales Ratio:

Net Profit / Net Sales X 100 5723 / 41121 X100 13.92%

Earnings Per Share Ratio:

Net Profit Payable / Number of shares 4366 / 1000 4.366 Per share

Solvency (Coverage) Ratios:

Debt to Total Asset Ratio:

Total Debts / Total Assets X 100 10161 / 22617 X 100 44.93%

Activity Ratios:

Primary Activity Ratios:

Debtor Turnover Ratio:

Net credit sales / Avg. Debtors 41121 / 5617 7.32 Note: All the sales are assumed as credit sales

Inventory Turnover Ratio:

CGS / Avg. Inventory 27742 / 1611 17.22

Asset Turnover Ratio:

Sales / avg. total assets 41121 / 22534.5 1.81

Supplementary Activity Ratios

Avg. Collection Period:

365 / Debtors turnover ratio 365 / 7.32 49.86 ~ 50 days

Inventory Conversion Period:

365 / Inventory turnover ratio 365 / 17.22 21.19~ 22 days

Ratio Analysis:

Sn

Ratios

2008

2007

2006

01 Current ratio 120% 154.37% 182.90% 02 Absolute Liquid Ratio 33.50% 36.10% 84.02% 03 Quick ratio 107.80% 139.23% 167.62% 04 GP Margin Ratio 34.26% 33.90% 32.54% 05 Net Profit to net sales ratio 9.80% 16.20% 13.92% 06 Earning Per Share Ratio 3.988 per share 8.268 per share 4.366 per share 07 Debt to Total Asset Ratio 51.42% 50.47% 44.93% 08 Debtor turnover ratio 4.91 5.97 7.32 09 Avg. Collection Period 74.33 days 61.13 days 49.86 days 10 Inventory Conversion Period 29.62 days 23.9 days 21.19 days 11 Inventory turnover Ratio 12.32 15.27 17.22 12 Asset turnover Ratio 0.21 1.7 1.81 The current ratio of the company shows that company have enough current assets to repay its all the current liabilities which shows that company is in good condition but not enough good as it was in 2007 and 2006. The absolute liquid ratio shows that company has 34.26% highly liquid assets to repay its current liabilities. This shows bad impact of the company. Although company has more liquid assets in 2006 and 2007 to clear its liabilities this shows that company's performance is going worse day by day. The quick ratio shows that company have enough funds available to repay its current liabilities. This is good sign for investors. But as we compare it with ratios of previous two years it shows that it is also decreasing. Company has not enough funds available as they were available in 2006-07. The GP margin ratio shows that our gross profit is 34.26% of total sales. This is increasing with the increase of sales. As we compare GP margin ratio of last three years, we see that GP margin is in very good in 2008. This attracts the investors. The NP to Net Sales ratio shows that the margin of net profit of total sales is 9.8% is quiet low as compared to previous two years. This shows that company has increased it administrative and marketing expenses this year. The share holders of the company are not getting enough earning this year as much as they have earned in previous years. This makes investors to withdraw their investment from business. And business goes down without having investment. The Debts to total assets shows that the company has 2 assets to repay its 1 Liability or debts. The company is in good position to clear its debts. As we compare it with past two years the company was in better condition. Company increased it debts this year. The debtor turnover ratio shows that we have made 4.91 times credit sales than avg. debtors. In past years company made more credit sales than this year. It means company prefer to make more cash sales. The avg. collection period shows that company recovers debts from customers in 74.33 days. As we compare this with last two years than we come to know that company recovered its debts in fewer periods than this. It means company made soft debts recovery policies. The inventory conversion period shows that company converts it stock/inventory into sales in 29.62 days. But in previous years company took 23.9 days and 21.19 days to convert its stock into sales. This year company took more time for conversion into sales. This means that company policies need urgent attention.

Accounting Ratios for Samsung Corporation Ltd

For the year 2008

Liquidity Ratios:

Current Ratio:

Current Assets / Current Liabilities X 100 193728 / 106617 X 100 181.7%

Absolute Liquid Ratio:

Cash + cash Equivalents / Current Liabilities X 100 91087 / 106617 X 100 85.43%

Quick (Acid Test) Ratio:

Current Assets - inventories / Current Liabilities X 100 191756 / 106617 X 100 179.85%

Profitability Ratios:

GP Margin Ratio:

Sales - CGS / Sales X 100 266056 / 298934 X 100 89%

Net Profit to Net Sales Ratio:

Net Profit / Net Sales X 100 63189 / 298934 X100 21.14%

Earnings Per Share Ratio:

Net Profit Payable / Number of shares 43592 / 1000 43.592 Per share

Solvency (Coverage) Ratios

Debt to Total Asset Ratio

Total Debts / Total Assets X 100 107840 / 848183 X 100 12.71%

Activity Ratios:

Primary Activity Ratios:

Debtor Turnover Ratio:

Net credit sales / Avg. Debtors 298934 / 72573 4.12 Note: All the sales are assumed as credit sales

Inventory turnover Ratio:

CGS / Avg. Inventory 32878 / 2155.5 15.25

Asset turnover Ratio:

Sales / avg. total assets 298934 / 745563.5 0.401

Supplementary Activity Ratios:

Avg. Collection Period:

365 / Debtors turnover ratio 365 / 4.12 88.59 days

Inventory Conversion Period:

365 / Inventory turnover ratio 365 / 15.25 23.93 days

Accounting Ratios for Siemens

For the year 2008

Liquidity Ratios:

Current Ratio:

Current Assets / Current Liabilities X 100 43242 / 42451 X 100 101.9%

Absolute Liquid Ratio:

Cash + cash Equivalents / Current Liabilities X 100 6893 / 42451X 100 16.24%

Quick (Acid Test) Ratio:

Current Assets - inventories / Current Liabilities X 100 28733 / 42451 X 100 67.69%

Profitability Ratios:

GP Margin Ratio:

Sales - CGS / Sales X 100 21043 / 77327 X 100 27.21%

Net Profit to Net Sales Ratio:

Net Profit / Net Sales X 100 5886 / 77327 X100 7.61%

Earnings Per Share Ratio:

Net Profit Payable / Number of shares 5886 / 1000 5.886 Per share

Solvency (Coverage) Ratios:

Debt to Total Asset Ratio:

Total Debts / Total Assets X 100 67083 / 94463 X 100 71.02%

Activity Ratios:

Primary Activity Ratios:

Debtor Turnover Ratio:

Net credit sales / Avg. Debtors 77327 / 15202.5 5.09 Note: All the sales are assumed as credit sales

Inventory Turnover Ratio:

CGS / Avg. Inventory 56284 / 13719.5 4.1

Asset Turnover Ratio:

Sales / avg. total assets 77327 / 93009 0.83

Supplementary Activity Ratios:

Avg. Collection Period:

365 / Debtors turnover ratio 365 / 5.09 71.71 days

Inventory Conversion Period:

365 / Inventory turnover ratio 365 / 4.1 89.02 days

Ratio Analysis of Nokia, Samsung and Siemens:

S/N

Ratios

Nokia

Samsung

Siemens

00

Year

2008

2008

2008

01 Current ratio 120% 181.7% 101.9% 02 Absolute Liquid Ratio 33.50% 85.43% 16.24% 03 Quick ratio 107.80% 179.85% 67.69% 04 GP Margin Ratio 34.26% 89% 27.21% 05 Net Profit to net sales ratio 9.80% 21.14% 7.61% 06 Earning Per Share Ratio 3.988 per share 43.592 per share 5.886 per share 07 Debt to Total Asset Ratio 51.42% 12.71% 71.02% 08 Debtor turnover ratio 4.91 4.12 5.09 09 Avg. Collection Period 74.33 days 88.59 days 71.71 days 10 Inventory Conversion Period 29.62 days 23.93 days 89.02 days 11 Inventory turnover Ratio 12.32 15.25 4.1 12 Asset turnover Ratio 0.21 0.401 0.83 As we compare the quick ratio of the nokia we can analyze that the company is more stable then the siemens but when we compare it to Samsung we can see that Samsung is more stable then nokia. Similarly as Absolute liquid ratio of the nokia is also less then the Samsung but it is grater then the siemens that means the company has absolute liquid assets greater then the siemens but less then the Samsung to pay off its current liabilities Same situation is with the Quick, G.P Margin Ratio and Net Profit to Sale Ratio in Nokia, It has good performance then the siemens but as we compare it to the Samsung. Samsung is more stable then nokia company due to various reasons The share holders of Samsung earn more than of Nokia's and Siemens'. This attracts investors to invest in Samsung rather than other two companies. Debts to total assets ratio shows that nokia has 51% of debts of its total assets. While Samsung has 12.71% and Siemens have 71% debts of its total assets. The Debts to Total assets ratio of Samsung is better than other two's. Nokia recovers its accounts receivables from its debtors in about 75 days while Samsung and Siemens recovers in 89 and 72 two days consecutively. The company should recover its receivables from its debtors in minimum period of time so that it can utilize its cash more effectively and efficiently. The above comparison shows that Siemens recovers its receivables in minimum time of 72 days. Samsung its stock into sales in 24 days while Nokia and Siemens put their stock into sales in 30 and 89 days. A company, having shorter inventory conversion period increases its sales and utilize its resources efficiently, is ideal company.

Importance:

Investment is life blood of a business. A business can never survive without appropriate investment/funding.

Investment: (Options)

Establishment of new Business:

An investor has an option of investment in starting a new business. He can start new business to earn profit. He can utilize his experience to run business efficiently.

Purchase of an Existing Business:

An investor can also purchase an existing business. He can do so on analyzing companies past annual reports and he also forecast standing of business in near future.

Investment in Shares of a Business:

An investor has an option of investment in shares of existing listed companies. He can compare some different companies' annual reports and take decision on making investment in shares.

Merging of Business:

Investors can investment in expansion of business in such a way to overcome on another same or different type of business. There are two types of merging of a business.

Horizontal

Merging into same type of business is called horizontal type of merging.

Vertical

Merging into different type of business is called vertical type of merging.

Amalgamation of Business:

Investors have an option of investment in amalgamation of one business into another. One business can amalgamate another business

Advancement of Loans:

An investor can advance loan to business on agreed terms.

Performance Audit

An audit performed by an asset manager from outside of the business to verify the performance shown in financial statements of the business.

Forecasting using Regression Line Method:

N

X

Y

XY

X2

1 5 34191 170955 25 2 6 41121 246726 36 3 7 51058 357406 49 4 8 50710 405680 64

∑

26

177080

1180767

174

Here X = Year Y = Sales

Y = a + b X

a = ∑X2 ∑Y - ∑X ∑XY

n ∑X2 - ∑ (X) 2

a = (174) (177080) - (26) (1180767) 4(174) - (26) a = 30811920 - 3069942 696 - 676 a = 111978 20

a = 5598.9

b = n ∑XY -∑X ∑Y

n ∑X2 - ∑ (X) 2

b = (4) (1180767) - (26) (177080) 4(174) - (26) a = 4723068 - 4604080 696 - 676 a = 118988 20

a = 5949.4

a = 5598.9 b = 5949.4

Y = a + b X

Y = 5598.9 + 5949.4 X Y = 5598.9 + 5949.4 (9) 9 = 59143.5 Y = 5598.9 + 5949.4 (10) 10 = 65092.0 Sales for the year 2009 is expected to increase.

Graphical Representation

Vision of the future

"Connecting people" is now connecting people to what matters - whatever that means for each person - giving them the power to make the most of every moment, everywhere, any time. Connecting the "we" is more powerful than just the individual. That's how Nokia is needed to help make the world a better place for everyone.

Strategy

To do this we will become the leading provider of mobile solutions. Our solutions strategy leverages one of our greatest assets - a portfolio of outstanding devices, with unmatched scale and geographic reach. We couple them with smart services, integrated via an intuitive and seamless user experience. We differentiate these solutions offerings based on our in-depth consumer understanding, with a strong focus on social location (people and places). In a world where connecting people to what matters, empowers them to make the most of every moment. Our ambition is to become the leading provider of mobile solutions
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