Chapter1. Introduction Travel motives and attempted to understand what motive affect tourist's travel decision making process and when. Both the leisure and tourism literature have recognised that when people are motivated, they are more likely to participate in leisure travel and encourage tourists to engage in pleasure trip. None of studies have shown meaningful way of findings on â€˜what' type of motives occur and â€˜how' tourists are influenced by motivational factors with respect to the travel decision making process. Countryside background of the researchers is also, one of the inspired to choose rural tourism. Along with the researcher's holiday experience in New Forest National Park become a motivation to examine the types of visitors and reason of the visiting New Forest National Park as a rural tourism. It was necessary to find out who are the rural tourists in the park In order to study for rural tourism in the park. After that the New Forest National Park would able to find a problems, improvement or enhancement for participants as well as non participants as a rural tourism. In addition, if there is anything to learn or find out the researcher would like to adapt to home country's rural tourism development. This study was designed to investigate the motivation of rural tourism and identify the visitors in New Forest National Park. Rural tourists were identified and profiled and then rural tourists were investigated based on motivations for participating in rural tourism.
1.1 Background of New National Forest Park The New Forest was originally Woodland, but parts were cleared for cultivation from the Stone Age and into the Bronze Age. The poor quality of the soil in the New Forest meant that the cleared areas turned into heathland waste. The New Forest was created as a royal forest by William the conqueror for the hunting of deer. As of 2005, roughly ninety percent of the New Forest is still owned by the Crown, the Crown lands have been managed by the Forest Commission since 1923. Around half of the Crown lands fall inside the new National Park. New Forest National Park is an area that remains mostly undeveloped, unspoiled and has a high scenic. The New Forest national park Authority is an independent organisation. The park is operating in a local government framework which is funded by central UK government. The New Forest National Park is the smallest national park in south coast of England and the park has become a national park since 2005. There are more than 20 members who have overall responsibility for making decisions, for setting policies and priorities and for making sure that resources are used properly and they are supported by 70 other staffs who expertise across a range of disciplines including planning, conservation, recreation, education, finance and communication.
1.2 Overview of rural tourism in UK Tourism is becoming increasingly important to the UK economy, environmental, culture. The importance of tourism to local economies varies across the UK. Some place like London has an enormous investment in the tourist industry, while others lag far behind. Nevertheless, the future of tourism is full of potential for small business. With the increases in security concerns for international travel and travel to large major areas, many rural tourist companies are moving in with their own offerings. Many of these low-risk rural areas may be able to rely on tourism as an important part of their economy. Cloke (1992) cites privatisation in the UK as a major process stimulating this form of rural production focused on rural recreation and tourism. The new political economy influencing agriculture in the EC has also facilitated farm diversification into new form of tourism accommodation and attractions. A variety of tourist opportunities exist throughout rural area in UK and tend to continue to grow as increasing numbers of local entrepreneurs identify new way to market previously untapped local resources and attractions, and bring tourists into their areas. Moreover, the nature of tourism is especially well â€“ suited to small-scale rural enterprises such as farm inn. Many remote areas are ideal locations for nature-based activities like walking, hunting and fishing, or ecotourism activities such hiking and rafting. Travelers interested in local cultures as well as the heritage of places they visit find an added benefit in having the town's local history buff lead a tour through the battlefield. For instance, Agriculture tourism invites tourists to experience working ranches, hay rides, corn mazes, and pumpkin patches etcâ€¦ At a time of change and uncertainty in the countryside, when many traditional rural industries are in decline or needing to adapt to stay in business, tourism represents an opportunity to stablise and support businesses and services. In carefully introduced and managed, and appropriate in scale and activity, tourism can help revitalise declining community facilities and services to the benefit of businesses, residents and the local economy. Rural tourism represents a merging of perhaps two of the most influential yet contradictory features of modern life. Not only are the forces of economic, social, cultural, environmental and political change working to redefine rural spaces the world over, but also, broad global transformations in consumption and transportation patterns are reshaping leisure behavior and travel. For these concerned with the nature of change in rural areas and tourism development, the dynamics and impacts of integrating these two dramatic shifts are not well know but yet are becoming increasingly provocative discourses for study.Â
1.3 Aims of the study
1.3.1 Aims It is important note that to identify the rural tourism visitors and their motivation of the trip in order to increase the number of the visitors as well as manages the rural destination without damages.Â This proposed study is comprised of three parts. The first part of the study and dissertation will identify and profile the rural tourism tourists in New Forest National Park. This will involve profiles of rural tourism participants at the destination. The next part will identify motivational factor of the visitors in New Forest National Park rural tourism. This will involve identify the reason of the rural tourism trip.Â The next park will determine the factors that affect rural tourism participation decisions. This will identify determine the factors that affect rural to tourism participation decisions. The aim is broad to allow for other discussion which after reviewing the literature reviews. It will be appear relevant to the paper.
1.3.2 Objectives Three objectives are formulated for this study. Research question are also related to each objective are described. The purpose of this dissertation thus is to examine the type of travel motivations that affecting tourist's decision making behaviour in rural tourism. The first of the study will identify and profile the rural tourism in New Forest National Park. Second of the study will examine the motivational factor which underlies their initial stage of travel decision. Finally, the study will investigate factors that affect tourist's decision about participation in rural tourism in New Forest National Park.
1.3.3 Research questions The first of the research question is simply identified of the New Forest National Park rural tourists are? This question will identify the characteristic of the visitors such as travelling individual or family, single, male, old, young people? Do New Forest National Park tourists have a particular profile such as higher income or sex? The second research question is doing New Forest National Park rural tourists have a difference in terms of visitors' motivational factor? This question will identify the any particular reasons of the rural trip in New Forest National Park. In order to answer the question the study will focus on reason of the visiting in New Forest National Park as a rural tourism. The tourists pay participation in different type of tourism such as camping, farm experience. Third question is what factors may affect to decision to participate in rural tourism in this National park. Are they participating because of seeking for particular interest? Or just want to be in rural area. This question need to identify what it the items that tourist thinks most important such as safety, transportation, scenery or distanceâ€¦ Will be surveyed with like scale 1 to 5. Also, satisfaction of the travel will be collected. What factors affect to decisions to participate in rural tourism in New Forest National Park? What factors then affect the participation? Maybe perception of rural resources will affect the decision of whether to participate in rural tourism.
1.4 Definition of terms There are continuing common theme within the tourism literature indicating that people intend to take a rural area trip because they are motivated by variety of different forces such as escaping from daily life routine, seeking adventure, rewarding and attractive destination attributes (Cha, McCleary, and Uysal. 1995) The motivational factors are believed to play a vital role in the tourist decision making process (Crompton and Ankomah. 1993). Rural tourism includes both those who intend to staying away from home for one night or more and those out for the day in the countryside for instance, visiting attractions, walking, cycling or enjoying a whole different range of countryside activities. These people are spends money in village shops, pubs, and restaurants and in market towns. They provide a market for local produce and create and opportunities for local entrepreneurship those staying overnight will do so in hotels or inns, bed & breakfast establishments or self-catering accommodation, on the farm, on caravan parks or campsites, or with friends and relatives. Those out for the day may be from within the region or from further afield, and may include those on holiday in nearby seaside resorts or on day trips out of London. They may be visiting for a specific event or to see a particular attraction. They may have a particular interest in sports, arts, museums or heritage, or seek educational outlets for their children. They may also be on business, for a meeting or small conference, or to look for commercial contracts and business opportunities. A proportion of those staying or visiting will be from overseas, including those from the near continent. The underlying dimension of motivational attributes in travel decision behaviour is worthy to note in order to understand the factors that influence travel decisions. Travel motivation might explain not only tourist's initial decision of whether or not to take a trip. But also, may contribute to explaining tourists final travel decision behaviours (Fodness. 1992)
1.5 Structure of the dissertation Chapter 1 provides overview of the rural tourism and background of New Forest National Park. Also presented is a description of the research problems which is limitation of the research and study aim, objectives and research questions. Chapter 2 conducted a literature review in which discussed various aspects of rural tourism and visitor's characteristic, motivation of the rural trip and visitors decision making factors. Chapter 3 describes and discusses the methods used to collect the data that was needed including the survey method and data for analysis. Chapter 4 follow on by analysis the introduction of the study and offers a range of discussion of findings. Chapter 5 completes of the study with a brief summary and se of conclusions. Limitations of the study and recommendation also discussed. The study was designed to accomplish three objectives: first identify and profile the rural tourism tourists in New Forest National Park second objective was examine the motivational factors that visitors seeking rural tourism and last objective was identify the relative travel motives decision making to reach to take a rural tourism.
Chapter2. Literature reviews
2.1 Rural tourism Lane (1992) noted that a third phase in tourism is taking place â€“ the rise of cultural tourism. In this phase rural tourism offers more jobs, a pluri-activity of work patterns, a more diversified employment structure for rural areas and a means of sustaining services, farming and forestry. Rural tourism produces pressure to enhance conservation measures, while it provides a stimulus for arts and crafts and helps sustain small communities. Keane et al.'s (1992) innovative, but little-known study on rural tourism offers a number of insights into the definition of rural tourism, acknowledging that there is a variety of term used to describe tourism activity in rural areas: agri-tourism, farm tourism, rural tourism, soft tourism, alternative tourism and many others which have different meanings from one country to another. Keane also points out that it is difficult to avoid some of this confusion in relation to labels and definitions because the term â€˜rural tourism' has been adapted by the European Community to refer to the entire tourism activity in a rural area (Deane et al. 1992) http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=ko&lr=&id=Axc_zw_AO0QC&oi=fnd&pg=PR8&dq=what+is+rural+tourism&ots=rpw1C_DgA9&sig=VMW2zUvYT828-jykKDpgnLZ742Y#v=onepage&q=&f=false To a certain extent, undifferentiated or mass tourism exists in rural areas, but this phenomenon is usually manifested in large scale developments and at some point cases to be â€˜rural' in nature ; mass and rural tourism are essentially incompatible and development of the former lessen the availability of the latter. Although it would be logical to assume that everyone is a potential rural tourist at some time. The range of rural tourism products and experiences is too great for generalisations. What matters, therefore is gaining knowledge of the existing and potential rural tourist's motives, preferences and behaviour regarding the various niche markets that exist; specifically, who can be attracted to a given rural tourism product? This is research task complicated by the fact that many domestic and international visitors experience urban, rural and resort attractions on the same trip.(Stephen page & Donald Getz 1997) Lane (1994) recommended research into price sensitivity, the importance of particular types of land-scape, heritage and interpretive facilities, and on demand for certain types of accommodation. Better understanding of perceptions, motivators and consumption patterns (such as repeat visit) is also important. Rural tourism development attracted increasing interest in the 1990s and a growing literature has contributed to our understanding of it as an evolving phenomenon. According to long and lane (2000), rural tourism has moved into its second phase of development, it's first having been characterised by growth in participation, product and business development, and partnership. Its second is predicted to be more complex, and is likely to be, given the questions that remain regarding its place in policy, its integration in practice. What is rural? There is no one commonly accepted definition for â€˜rural' (Willits Beatler, & Timbers, 1990). In Webster's dictionary, â€˜rural' is defined as â€œruralï¿½ï¿½? is defined as â€œof or pertaining of the country, as distinguished from a city or town; living in the country; and farming/agricultural' (Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary.1998). â€˜Rural' applies to sparsely settled or agricultural country. The definition of â€˜rural' in the Korean dictionary is â€œa village or area where people make a living by farming, including raising stock, sericulture, horticulture, forestry, and fruit-growingï¿½ï¿½? (Yahoo Korea Dictionary, 2004) Lane (1994) suggests that â€˜rural tourism' exists as a concept, and reflects the differing and complex pattern of rural environment, economy, history and location. â€˜Rural tourism' is directly related to the particular characteristics of rural area, and it is assumed that the principal motivation for visiting the countryside is to experience its reality. This motivation justifies the definition of â€˜rural tourism' as an identifiable type of tourism, with rural tourism being an end onto itself â€“ to experience the countryside. Lane (1994) discusses the historical continuity in the development of rural tourism and examines some of the key issues which combine to make rural tourism distinctive. Bramwell (1994:3) suggests that, despite the problems of defining the concept of â€˜rural', â€˜it may be a mistake to deny our commonsense thoughts that rural areas can have distinctive characteristics or the countryside'. The views and perceptions people hold of the countryside are different from those they have of urban areas, which is an important starting point for establishing the distinctiveness of rural tourism. Lane (1994) actually lists the subtle differences between urban and rural tourism, in which individual social representations of the countryside are critical component of the ways in which people interact with rural areas. In fact Squires (1993) acknowledges that both social representations and personal images of the countryside condition whether people wish to visit rural areas for tourism, and what they see and do during their visit Lane (1994) also highlights the impact of change in rural tourism since the 1970's, with far greater numbers of recreationalists and tourists now visiting rural areas. As Patmore's (1983) seminal study on recreation and leisure acknowledges, the impact of car ownership has led to a geographical dispersion of recreationalists and tourists beyond existing fixed modes of transport. Consequently, tourism has moved away from a traditional emphasis on resorts, small towns and villages to become truly rural, with all but the most inaccessible wilderness areas awaiting the impact of the more mobile tourist. Despite this strong growth in the demand for rural tourism Land(1994) acknowledges the absence of any systematic sources of data on rural tourism, since neither the world Considering the demand and supply of rural tourism, it can be defined more specifically; Demand-side rural tourism is based on the nature of the visitor and is defined as â€œa visit by a person to any place other than his or her usual work or home environment and that is outside a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areaï¿½ï¿½? (Greffe,1994,p23). On the other hand, supply-side rural tourism is more focused on a visitors' place of stay. Rural tourism is also associated with a particular from of accommodation that offers tourism opportunities to participate in farm-related activities, such as vegetable gardening or caring for farm animals. â€˜Agricultural tourism' is specified by the act of visiting a working farm or any agricultural horticultural or agribusiness operation for the purpose of enjoyment, education, or active involvement in the activities of the farm or operation (Lobo, 2001; Buck, 2004). It includes taking part in a board range of farm-based activities, including farmers' markets, 'petting' farms, roadside stands, and â€˜pick-your-own' operations; engaging in overnight farm or ranch stays and other farm visits; and visiting agriculture-related festivals, museums, and other such attractions. Agricultural tourism operations provide a bridge between urban and rural dwellers. Agricultural tourism, or agri-tourism, is one alternative for improving the incomes and potential economic viability of small farms and rural communities.' Farm to tourism' is defined as a subset of rural tourism and is in many ways an incarnations of the traits typical to rural enterprises; small-scale, with local roots, and anchored in local traditions. It also seems to be the oldest form of rural tourism (Nilsson, 2002). The concept of rural tourism has evolved substantially in recent years. One aspect of the change is reflected in the vocabulary used to describe various types of rural tourism activities. For instance, some studies refer to outdoor-based tourism as â€˜ecotourism', while other publications use the term â€˜nature based tourism' or â€˜green tourism' (Stancliffe, 1992). Although these two terms are not technically synonymous; the term â€˜ecotourism' suggests activities that promote conservation of nature, while nature based tourism is evocative of a broader spectrum of outdoor based recreation including hunting, fishing, camping, and the use of recreational vehicles. These new terms reflect new perspectives in the tourism industry. Green tourism â€“ although in some countries the term â€˜ green tourism' refers specifically to tourism in the countryside(i.e. tourism in green areas), it is more commonly used to describe forms of tourism that are considered to be more environmentally friendly than traditional, mass tourism. Variously called â€˜alternative', 'responsible', 'soft',' good'(Wood and House 1991) or â€˜new' (Poon 1993) tourism, green tourism is an approach to tourism development which seeks to develop a symbiotic relationship(Budowski 1976) with the physical and social environment on which it depends. In other words, increasing concern about the harmful effects of mass tourism has led to calls for more sustainable forms of tourism development such as approach is, of course, of particular relevance to rural tourism given the environmental fragility of many rural areas. Heritage tourism is also often included within the scope of rural tourism and refers to leisure travel that has as its primary purpose the experiencing of places and activities that represent the past. The principal concerns of heritage tourism are historical authenticity and the long term sustainability of attractions (Gartner 2004) Ecotourism is a form of tourism development which â€˜offers unique opportunities for integrating rural development, tourism, resource management, and protected area management in many sites around the world (Hvenegaard 1994). More specifically, it is a form of nature tourism which actively promotes environmental conservation, is directly beneficial to local societies and cultures, and which provides tourists with a positive, educative experience. It is, in effect, a form of alternative, sustainable tourism (Cater and Lowman 1994: 3), but one which, implicitly, depends on a rural environment. Hence, ecotourism is a subset of rural tourism, but not all rural tourism is necessarily ecotourism. When studying rural tourism, it is essential to first define exactly what is involved in rural tourism, because a lack of clarity in terms of definition can influence data collection, resulting in partial information on rural tourism with regard to both scope and scale (Sharpley&Roberts, 2004) The roots of rural tourism are very similar throughout the world, no matter when it comes into practice (Fleischer & Pizam, 1997). In the early days, rural tourism was developed and encouraged primarily for the purpose of revitalization and diversification of rural areas. A decline in the ability of farming and related agricultural support businesses limited the ability of farmers and rural residents to generate sufficient income causing many farmers to seek new sources of income and to diversify their farms. Also, a systematic and substantial decrease in the rural populations, the aging of these populations, now characterizes many rural areas (Fleischer & Pizam, 1997; Ribeiro & Marques, 2002) Tourism has long been suggested as a strategy of revitalizing rural economies. rural tourism can add income to farms and other households, provides job alternatives, diversifies the rural economy, and makes the provision of certain infrastructure possible(Oppermann,1996). Therefore, many rural communities turned to tourism to stimulate new economic development (Blaine, Mohammad, & Var, 1993) Lane (1994) offers some tourism market trends that will accelerate the growth of rural tourism in the future. He points to growing interest in rural life, including heritage and tradition, an increasing health consciousness giving a positive appeal to rural lifestyles and values, market interest in high performance outdoor equipment, search for solitude and relaxation in a quiet natural place, and an aging but active population retiring earlier but living and travelling far into old age. As increasing attention has been paid to rural tourism as a specific form of tourism development, so too has the scope of research into tourism in rural areas become more diverse. Rural tourism is not new however; interest in rural tourism has increased rapidly during the past several years. The recent surge in rural tourism has come from the demand-side, due in part to increased disposable incomes improved lifestyles, increased health awareness, a mature travel market, changing tastes and preferences, and increases in automobile and weekend travel (Hill, 193; Alexander & Mckenna, 1998) Opportunities for rural tourism development include general tourism growth, increased family vacationing, environmental interest, the recent dispersion of travel through growing auto travel, a mature travel market, changing tastes and preferences, urbanization, and growing weekend travel. On the other hand, there are also obstacles to rural tourism development, which include weak drawing power, dispersion of attractions and services, meagre secondary economic impacts, internal community conflicts, and destination life cycle. Hill (1993) made several suggestions for capitalizing on rural tourism opportunities and overcoming various obstacles. The major challenges he identifies are developing attractions, encouraging entrepreneurship, informing markets, reacting to changing tastes, providing quality service and preserving attractions and attractiveness. It is important to stress that a number of different tourism products or types of tourism development fall under the heading of rural tourism. However, they do not necessarily equate with it. For example, farm tourism refer to â€˜all forms of tourism that are directly connected with a farm' (Jansen-Verbeke and Nijmegen 1990) and includes staying on a farm, either in rooms or camping, educational visits, meals, recreational activities, and the sales of farm produce or handicrafts. Tourism has been considered as a vehicle for economic regeneration and employment creation in the UK, too. A number of local authorities have sought to capture the potential economic benefits afforded by tourism and a number of studies have investigated the ways to maximize the benefits. Thomas and Long (2001) presented the development of employee skills as a key issue for effective tourism development. They examined the link between employee skills development and the contribution of tourism to regeneration in rural areas. Wilson et al (2001) addressed the importance of the community context and rural tourism â€œentrepreneursï¿½ï¿½? role in tourism development and promotion in rural areas. According to Wilson, the ten most important conditions for successful tourism development in rural areas include a complete tourism package, good community leadership, support and participation of local government, sufficient funds for tourism development, strategic planning, coordination and cooperation between rural tourism entrepreneurs, information and technical assistance for tourism development and promotions, good convention and visitors bureaus, and widespread community support for tourism. Cooperation of all elements of the industry and the community has also been emphasized by Hunt (1992). Additionally, he has suggests a broad-based program that details development, marketing and management as a strategy for successful development of rural tourism. Tourism has been considered as a vehicle for economic regeneration and employment creation in the UK, too. A number of local authorities have sought to capture the potential economic benefits afforded by tourism and a number of studies have investigated the ways to maximize the benefits. Thomas and Long (2001) presented the development of employee skills as a key issue for effective tourism development. They examined the link between employee skills development and the contribution of tourism to regeneration in rural areas. Oppermann (1996) found a surprising fact in a study of farm based tourism in southern Germany: operators thought a â€˜calm relaxing environment' was the chief motivator of tourists, but to visitors the actual farm environment was only a backdrop. And although the environmental wisdom in Germany is that rural tourists are mostly middle-aged couples with children Oppermann(1995) found a bimodal distribution defined by couples and groups of four. Families were much more likely to stay on farms. Identifying and segmenting the rural tourism market is probably the lease researched and understood process in the rural tourism system. There are few studies that focus on the rural tourist, although one could assemble market facts from diverse sources and aggregate them into a comprehensive rural tourism market evaluation.
2.2 Rural tourism issues However, rural tourism development may not always be the best strategy for solving rural problems. The successful development of rural tourism depends upon planning and the existence of infrastructure, attractions, essential services, management, maintenance, and an accessible market. In the absence of any one of these elements, a rural region may find that tourism is not a cost-effective option, or that other development tools, such as investment in infrastructure and education, must precede the development of rural tourist attraction and services ( Edgell & Carwright, 1990). Only when proper conditions prevail, can tourism be a contributor to rural economic development in the areas. Sandell argue about the tourism access issues. Rural tourism is, simply, about people. It is about tourists who visit and enjoy the countryside and who, in order to do so, must be able to travel to and within rural areas. In other words, for rural tourism to exist and, by implication, for it to benefit local communities, people must have access to the countryside. As tourism is increasingly developed in rural areas and as the demand for rural tourism grows, so too will there be a greater need other demands on the countryside but also with the longer term protection or conservation of the rural resources. As more tourists demand access and as rural planners and managers, eager to jump on the rural tourism industry, should be limited to Swedish citizens as a result of concern over the misuse of theses rights by overseas tourists (Sandell 1995) Ray Williams discussed problems as the division and opposition of city country, industry and agriculture, in their modern forms, are the critical culmination of the division and specialisation of about which, though it did not begin with capitalism, was developed under it to an extraordinary and transforming degree. Other forms of the same fundamental division are the separation between mental and manual labour, between administration and operation, between politics and social life. The symptoms of this division can be found at every point in what is now our common life; in the idea and practice of social classes; in conventional definitions of work, the year, the lifetime. Much of the creative thinking of our time is an attempt to re-examine each of these concepts and practices. It is based on the conviction that the system which generates and is composed by them is intolerable and will not survive. On new forms of decision-making, new kinds of education, new definitions and practices of work, new kinds of settlement and land-use (William, 1975) Williams (1984) also argue that traditional forms of rural planning were related to development control by designating landscapes as specially protected areas. However, with changes in the economic structure of rural areas, as agricultural employment has declined in the post â€“ war period, rural planning has also adopted a more positive strategy towards rural tourist as a form of employment generation to offset out â€“ migration and a declining population base and to sustain thresholds for service provision. In this context, tourism has been perceived as one activity to assist in rural development in declining areas. In other contests, rural planning has needed to exercise development controls to prevent rural tourism development (e.g. second-home ownership) from dominating villages and other rural settlement has been used in both a facilitating and a controlling role for rural tourism to develop. Protect and enhance the quality of rural environments.
2.3 Tourist's motivation factors Fisher and Price (1991) studied travel motivations and post vacation cultural attitude change. The authors suggested that the need and desires of travel will influence tourist's attitudes and behaviour while on a trip. Tourist motivated by a desire to meet new people and experience new culture might be different from tourists motivated by a need to relax on the beach. Different in motivations are manifest depending upon the interaction of tourists with the host culture and the likelihood of post vacation attitude change. (Fisher & Price 1991) also, Hirschman (1984) identified leisure motivations at a deeper level such as escaping from reality, involvement, and competitiveness. Fir pleasure travel motivations were identified in Fisher and price 1991 study for example learning experience, escaping, coping and social. Social motivations were further divided into two dimensions: kinship and new people. Although travel motivations are different from one person to the other and from one culture to other, it may be commonly observed that tourists look for two major dimensions of leisure and pleasure travel motives push and pull dimension. Within the context of tourism motivation is one of the many variables that affect tourists travel decision of whether or not to go on a trip. Motivation theory suggests that travel motive is a dynamic process of internal psychological factors that generate an uncomfortable level of tension within individual's minds and bodies (Um and Crompton 1990: Crompton, 1992, p555) All tourist behaviour or activity results from motivation. It is the â€˜trigger' that sets off all events in travel (Parrinello 1993) and, as such, is the very basis of the demand for tourism. Therefore, the analysis of motivational factors can help explain travel behaviour and destination choice and, in a practical sense, enable tourism organisations to satisfy the needs of tourists. Motivation in the considered in detail elsewhere but, generally, it can be seen as comprising two sets of factors. Cha et. al. (1995) studied travel motivations of international tourists and found that individuals travelling alone looked for novelty. Travel experience and adventure factors, when at the same time they were motivated by luxury and relaxation. The study further noted that motives for Japanese overseas pleasure travel included feeling at home away from home. Escaping from daily routine, and doing nothing at all. They not only looked for knowledge factors such as seeing and experiencing a foreign destination. Travelling to historical sites, and experiencing different lifestyles, but also engaged in activities such as sports participation and sports watching. Overseas tourists also looked for thrilling or exiting. Daring and adventure some, and safe and secure travel. Motives for these factors were labelled as â€˜adventure'. In addition, the study found that the effect of both tourist's age and levels of education on travel motivations was significantly different among international tourists (Cha et, al. 1995) Lane (1994) offers some tourism market trends that will accelerate the growth of rural tourism in the future. He points to a growing interest in rural life, including heritage and tradition, an increasing health consciousness giving a positive appeal to rural lifestyles and values, market interest in high performance outdoor equipment, search for solitude and relaxation in a quiet natural place, and an aging but active population retiring earlier but living and travelling far into old age. As increasing of attention has been paid to rural tourism as a specific form of tourism development, so too has the scope of research into tourism in rural areas become more diverse. Tourism and recreation demand is assumed to depend mainly upon levels of income and the price of tourism. But the literature reveals that other factors can also be important such as socioeconomic factors, such as the preferences of visitors and the popularity of the tourist destination under consideration; marketing expenditures the increase in the length of second holidays; the possibility of vacations outside of the high season increase in standards of living in developed countries and some destination specific factor (Gonzalez&Moral, 1996) Maslow's hierarchy has six phases of needs; 1) the need for psychological requirements 2) the need for safety and security 3) the need for belonging 4) the need for recognition 5) the need for self recognition 6) the need for self actualisation. Within the context of tourism, it is noted that Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a framework to explain travel motivation from travel experiences fits within Maslow's hierarchy of needs (Fodness, 1994). Motives for travel also relate to sociodemographic variables, demographic variables, and reference group attitude and opinions (Uysal&Hagan1990) The countryside is a resource which supports a variety of demands and uses. Including tourism some of these uses, such as farming and forestry, are an integral element of the physical and social characteristics of the countryside whereas other demands, such as housing or road building, effectively use up or diminish the overall supply of countryside. Importantly, however these demands are not mutually exclusive not only is the countryside a finite resource, implying that it must be shared amongst all the various demands placed upon it, but also each demand or use directly influences the viability of other uses. The more that one use dominates the countryside the less able are other uses to exploit the resource. The creation of national parks and other designated areas is one way in which the public sector provides access to rural areas. However, in these circumstances, even where the land is owned by the state, access is often restricted either by boundaries, entry charges or specific opening, closure times and is, therefore, controlled. Conversely, in the UK, with the exception of country parks which were designed specifically to increase the stock of recreational facilities. The creation of national parks and other designated areas has not resulted in increased access as the great majority of the land concerned remains in private ownership. (Richard&Julia Sharpley) Uysal and Hagan (1990) defined motives as internal forces in accordance with external goals and incentives that direct human behaviour. Similarly,Iso-Ahola (1982) note that motives are an individual's internal factors that direct his/her behavioural pattern. Travel motivations along with decision making are considered as a psychological factor in underlying how people view alternative tourism destinations and reach the final travel decision to take a pleasure trip. Bramwell (1993:21) notes that rural tourist appear to be more affluent and better educated, to seek quality and spend above-average amounts on holidays. As to motivations, there is little published material available. There are continuing common theme within the tourism literature indicating that people intend to take a trip because they are motivated by their own internal and External forces such as escaping from daily routine. Seeking nature, relaxations (Char. McCleary.And Uysal, 1995). A number of researcher have found that motivational factors influence travel decision behaviour. The motivational factors are believed to play a vital role in the tourist's decision making process (Crompton and Ankomah, 1993) Travel motivation might explain not only tourists' initial decision of whether or not to take decision behaviours (Fodness. 1992) Identify the underlying motives that typically explain the reason for travel. In the tourism motivation literature it is common theme that motives for travel are explained by push factors internal factors that lead to the desire to take a trip. On the other hand, pull factors refer to the characteristics of a destination that draw the tourist to its boundary (Hudman, 1989)
2.4 Decision making The traveller tends to make a decision based upon the limited knowledge of the most satisfactory aspects to meet his or her needs (Lea, 1993). From the economic perspective, it is understood that the decision maker has perfect knowledge of the product he or she is willing to purchase and the purchasing action occurs in a rational way. Stweart and Stynes (1994) pointed out that research on tourist's decision making for tourism products is complex. The nature of decision making behaviour can be well understood from the marketing perspective. For one of the tourism products, a condominium for example, the decision making requires a long term commitment of resources. This long term commitment of consumption over time involves some degree of risk and uncertainty which in turn gives the decision maker a difficult task of judging alternatives. Moreover, decision making for tourism products usually takes a long time travel sometime ahead in the future (Abelson&Levi.1985) Stewart and Styne (1994) further suggested that the understanding of decision making associated with destination selection might be improved through attention to the unique nature of complex decision making behaviour. Potential tourists are often confronted with complex decision making when planning to travel to a new travel destination whose benefits and costs are fully unknown to them. In general way if consumers are faced with the situation where they do not know anything about the product itself. Then they behave in two different ways; first they learn about the product simply by trying it, second; they learned by ob serving the experience of other customers who purchased the product. The choice of whether to purchase the product immediately or later and learn from others is determined by dynamic optimisation. This aspect could be applied into tourism at a cost involvement level. He or she learns his or her own net impact from the tourism experience. This tourism experience might lead him/her to continue or discontinue buying the product on the basis their own knowledge in the post purchase evaluation. (McFadden&Train.1996)
Chapter3. Methodology This chapter presents an exploration into the methodology used in this thesis. This chapter discusses the procedures followed in the conduct of the survey. The surveys identify and describe the data collection method and how the sample and survey locations for the study were selected. In order to ensure that the research goals of this paper are achieved, it is essentially necessary to define the scope of the research efforts. The methodology selected for this paper is primary and secondary approaches. For the purposes of this research and given that primary data collection methods are needed, survey data collection methods were used. Primary data were collected through the survey questionnaire. The survey research was conducted to collect data of rural tourism participant's data in National Forest National Park.
3.1 Data collection method The dissertation was use survey research method for collecting data. The data has collected by questionnaires methods as primary data collection due to There was no secondary data that could used and the data was unique so primary data collection has been chosen by the researcher. Several different survey methods were initially considered including a telephone survey, a mail survey, interviews and a Questionnaire survey. Interviews were expensive and especially when consider interviewing tourists it is hard to find future tourists but also, difficult to set up interviews. This reason also, applies to other methods such as observation or focus group interviews. Mostly, this dissertation will not consider other email, telephone survey because of its difficult to find tourists personal details such as phone number and also, case of telephone survey was deemed not to be appropriate because of the time consuming and cost for the length of the questionnaire. Even survey research has difficulties such as dealing with tourists directly because, some of tourist weren't pleased to spend time on questionnaire even if participate in survey some of the answers were in completed or looked at the questionnaires types and long they just left. This was suspicious of whether was too complicate or long for the respondents. However, the response rate of questionnaire survey would higher and more accurate than either of the other two other data collection methods. In addition, there was no arrangement were necessary as strong advantage of the method, and relatively it was cheap. It did total cost less than 50 pounds include photo copies and petrol for driving to the destination. Also, accommodation cost to stayed at camping park where one of the most famous in South west. It was also, determined that this method would enable to researchers to collect the date within the 2 days at the destination. Therefore, considering the purpose, survey length and contents this dissertation was decided that a survey questionnaire would be the most effective and appropriate data collection method for the study. Respondents completed the survey sheet honestly and accurately without input from other or any other pressures.
3.2 Sample, Survey location
3.2.1 Sampling The sample size of the study was a total of 110 respondents have completed a survey of which 101 responses were used in the data analysis. Based upon the time consuming and budget of the study, and because, a sample size of 101 was considered statically sufficient to generalise study results. The sample of those respondents from a New Forest National Park area was selected by utilising the disproportionate quota sampling method. This sampling method consisted of different types, motivation of visitors who were involved in rural tourism on New Forest National Park. Disproportionate quota sampling method was considered appropriate because of the respondents were chosen from the National Park based on the sample size 110 tourists. The questionnaire was made by 4 pages A4 papers long to use collect the data necessary. The questionnaire contains perception of rural tourism and motivation of the trip. The study had certain limitations. The research period was relatively short period to examine and research the issues involved in the study and the resources limited the scope. Prakash (1992) suggested that the specific type of respondents chosen provided useful information to the purpose of theory application. Thus, it was ideal for the researcher to have quota sampling at the New Forest National Park rural is of tourists. Selected 110 rural tourism participants who may will helpful at New Forest National Park the samples of tourists in this study were considered appropriate because, the findings can contribute to generate a sample.
3.2.2 Survey location
Figure 2 Survey Location Within geographic region, different survey locations were selected. Those locations included private camping park, public places such as shops, pub, and park. The researcher stayed 2 nights to consider for survey on wide range of national park. As the researcher stayed at campsite this is should be one of the atmospheres to travelling that stay with nature and fresh air on New Forest National Park as rural tourism. This small camping company has successes according to one of employer. Also, it was full of tourists in that site. The questionnaire was distributed by the researcher to collection of data and analysis to identify the tourist's interests, motivation factors, perceptions. Survey methods which were chosen were useful to find out the specific types of tourists, motivation and reason of travelling. The national park was wild which is led to hard to survey people whole area. Unless spend one and half days still left me to doubt to had an enough data and position I was collecting.
3.3 Survey instrument The survey has completed to actual participants who were at destination. Four pages, self questionnaire (Appendix A) were distributed by the researcher in order to collect the data necessary to accomplish the study's objectives. Before the final survey instrument was finalised, a draft questionnaire was pretested by researcher it to friends. Couple of surveys were completed, and based upon the results; further refinements were made in the instrument. The final survey instrument is comprised 16 different questions. In order to identify of the visitor's types the survey collected data on; age group, marital status, education, religion, occupation, transportation, monthly income. This type of visitor's information was able to identify who are the actual rural tourism visitors in New Forest National Park. The survey also asked about 11 reasons of participates in rural tourism during the holiday. The eleven types were Nature study / nature experience/ecological experience/agricultural experience/ farm experience / weekend farm / local / relaxation, refreshment / away from urban life / visit family, relatives, friends / experience country life. Each reason was on a 5 point like type scale such as very important or not very important scale. The reason of this participation was studied to identify the motivation of the rural tourism in New Forest National Park.
Chapter4. Analysis and discussion of findings
4.1 Overview of rural tourism participants in New Forest National Park This chapter provides a survey respondents and their participation in rural tourism in New Forest National Park. The results various characteristics of the survey respondents are presented. Also, describes their participation in rural tourism and profiles their rural tourism trip in New Forest National Park.
4.2 Survey respondents A total of 110 completed surveys responses collected. Only 101 usable surveys collected data on age group, marital status, education, religion, occupation, transportation, monthly income. This type of visitor's information was able to identify who are the actual rural tourism visitors in New Forest National Park. This study has found out the most of rural tourism participants are want to have a relaxation with nature. More than half of the survey participants were chooses the New Forest National Park as a holiday because of want to escape from the city life or daily routine of work. In addition, when compare the each rural tourism participant's higher educated people looking for New Forest National Park. Most of tourist's were travelling by their own vehicle rather than public transportation. Due to this reason, majority tourists were under 50 years old. Elderly people may find difficult to drive long distance by themselves to get destination. Most of rural tourism participants were satisfied about their holidays. The study utilized factor analysis for the purpose of identifying the underlying dimensions of motivation factors at the early consideration of New Forest National Park.
4.3 Analysis of the results In subsequent data analysis, based on the obtained factor sources, the study utilised logistic regression as a data analysis tool to predict potential tourists travel decision behaviour. A logistic regression was employed for the purpose of predicting and obtaining adequate description of all facts of the variables regarding respondent's intention to take a future rural tourism trip in New National Forest Park. Furthermore, logistic regression was selected due to the binary nature of the dependent variable intention to take a travel. As explained in the section on operation On the other hands, also quite few of people want to have some more fun such as leisure sports, horse riding and farm festivals. It can be concluded from the results of this study that respondents recognised different types of travel motives in their travel to New Forest National Park. The reliability of coefficients for the motive ranged from 60 to 70. The labels for each of the factors were based on the surrogate variables and common characteristic of the tourists.
Research question 1: The first of the research question is identifying the tourists in the New Forest National Park as rural tourism several different visitors characterise data has been identified. As a result New Forest National Park visitors identified important profile such as higher income or higher education. The complete findings are included in Table 1 Summarise the different types of rural tourism participants in New Forest National Park. Below table shows that several different range of participant's data. Particularly, a large majority (72 visitors out of 101 total visitors) are under 40 years old. There were few old people but, especially there were no visitors over 60 years old. Mostly under 40 years old visitors were generated in New Forest National park rural trip. This is quite interesting factor that normally elderly people looking for the relaxing and nature but, in this case unlikely the majority of participants were under 40 years old. In order to increase number of elderly people New Forest National Park requires identifying the reason of lack of elderly people. As 89 of participants were arrived by own their vehicle and only 12 participants were travelled by public transportation. Driving to the destination may difficult to elderly people when consider the location of the park and distance. Accessibility should be look into by New Forest National Park. In addition, the table 1 shows that there were more than half of the visitors (70 visitors) were had a university or MBA, PHD as higher education. More educated people visit rural destination more than ordinary educated people. Higher educated people generate higher income. The visitors with a higher income visited New Forest National Park more than lower income visitors. On average respondents have higher monthly incomes, higher education levels, and is variety of different age but, there are only 5 respondents over 60's.Â Higher education levels also correlate higher monthly incomes. Most of visitors were employed or self employed. Nearly half of the tourists (54 visitors) have an income more than 4000 pounds per month. There were no rural tourism participant's earning less than 1000 pound per month. This data shows that higher income and educations are vital key characteristic elements of the rural tourism participants in NFNP. The main of the tourists were consisting of middle aged couple or family with children.Â Between age 20 to 40 were 70 people. There are 45 singles but actually it was mainly couple of group of 3 or 4. Research question 2 what important motivational factors of the rural travel in New Forest National Park. The logistic regression employed to take a close look at a number of motivational factors emerged. The emerged motive factor dimensions from the consideration of destinations were coping. Relaxation, experience, visit farm, study or experience nature, agriculture experience, escape, visit friends, family, relatives. Based on underlying dimension of the rural tourism trip motives, the results came out as below table. Q: The second research question is doing New Forest National Park rural tourists have a difference in terms of visitors' motivational factor? This question will identify the any particular reasons of the rural trip in New Forest National Park. In order to answer the question the study will focus on reason of the visiting in New Forest National Park as a rural tourism. The tourists pay participation in different type of tourism such as camping, farm experience. Variety different reason of the rural tourism participation has been occurred. When planning rural tourism trip in New Forest National Park over half of the respondents were seek for relaxation with nature. These respondents were taking very import of the rural tourism in both of rural tourism reason. In general, the most important reason why survey respondents participate in rural tourism is to relax or enjoy the natural environment (65).Â Other less important reason for participating in rural tourism trips, including Visit farm (7) nature study (5) living at local (10) visit friends or relatives (2), escape from urban life (1) are still important reason for some people. 18 of rural tourists responded that social interaction as spend leisure time is another important reason for taking rural tourism trips. Scale of the 1 to 3 which is not very important but, still their consideration of the rural tourism. In general, the most important reasons why survey respondents participate in rural tourism are to relax or spend some time with experience the natural environment. Many of the respondents take rural tourism trip to visit recreational forests in New Forest National Park. Other lesser important reasons for participating in rural tourism trips, including ecological, agricultural experiences are still important reason for some people. Some of people are agricultural experience is either a very important or an important reason for their trips. This can be shows that the rural tourism market in New Forest National Park could be based on the reasons why they participate The study shows that many tourists were seek for the nature and relaxation but, also, quite few of tourists were looking for something that they could do rather than sit and relax. These factors suggest that the rural tourism market in New Forest National Park may be segmented based on the reason why they participate. Oppermann (1996) found a surprising fact in a study of farm based tourism in southern Germany: operators thought a â€˜calm relaxing environment' was the chief motivator of tourists, but to visitors the actual farm environment was only a backdrop. And although the environmental wisdom in Germany is that rural tourists are mostly middle-aged couples with children Oppermann (1995) found a bimodal distribution defined by couples and groups of four. Families were much more likely to stay on farms. Identifying and segmenting the rural tourism market is probably the lease researched and understood process in the rural tourism system. There are few studies that focus on the rural tourist, although one could assemble market facts from diverse sources and aggregate them into a comprehensive rural tourism market evaluation. Table 3 Reason of the chose to rural tourism in New Forest National Park trip Reasons Number ofÂ touristsÂ Not very important <-> very important To visit a travel farmÂ Research question 3 is that what factors may affect to decision to participate in New Forest National Park as rural tourism. The third objective of this study presented in chapter 1 was to investigate factors that affect tourist's decision about participation in rural tourism in New Forest National Park. To investigate the factors tourist's decision concerning rural tourism, Different elements of the participant's decision making. When traveller decides to travel to New Forest National Park they consider on several different items. Table 2 shows that Total 45 visitor's chosen New Forest National Park's for natural environment and scenery is important factors to make their decision for rural tourism at the park. On the other hands, total 44 visitors considers on transportation, distance, accessibility which is another vital factor s relate on travelling to the Park. Higher numbers of rural tourists consider the natural environment as the most important factor when determining rural tourism destinations followed by transportation and accessibility. For many rural tourists the safety and distance considered less important. Generally most of below items were identified by participants as a very important ant's scale factor. Table 2 factors affect on decision making Please choose the number that rate how important of beyond items when you decide to go to rural tourism trip to New Forest National Park. Third question is what factors may affect to decision to participate in rural tourism in this National park. Are they participating because of seeking for particular interest? Or just want to be in rural area. This question need to identify what it the items that tourist thinks most important such as safety, transportation, scenery or distanceâ€¦ Will be surveyed with like scale 1 to 5. Also, satisfaction of the travel will be collected. What factors then affect the participation? Maybe perception of rural resources will affect the decision of whether to participate in rural tourism. Below Table 3 shows that satisfaction degree of the rural tourist. Respondents also indicate the important of the factor in selecting their rural tourism destination and the degree of their satisfaction. As reported in table 3, 75 of the rural tourists were satisfied and 25 of tourists were very satisfied. Over a 97 of the respondents were either satisfied or very satisfied with their rural tourism trip, amazingly there were no respondents who dissatisfied or very dissatisfied. Table 4 shows that 98 rural tourists were likely willing to take a rural trip again in the future. Table 5 Degree of the participation How likely are you willing to participate again in rural tourism trip? If you are plan to participate in rural tourism again how many times would you do per year? How likely are you willing to participate again?
5.2 Discussion of the results of the analysis The findings of the study that here are significant differences between The visitors in New Forest National Park has a characteristics including age, monthly income, education level, occupied is significant.Â Higher education level with higher income of tourists were participating rate was higher than tourist with low income with lower education. Over 60 elderly people also shows low rate of the participating at rural trip.
Relate to the literature The findings of this study contrast Um and Crompton's (1992) work which found that there was no significant difference in perceived facilitators, otherwise called motivation factors related to the selection of the rural tourism destination. The findings of this study agreed Oppermann (1996) found that operators though a â€˜calm relaxing environment' was the chief motivator of tourists but to visitors the actual farm environment was only backdrop and although the environmental wisdom in Germany is that rural tourists are mostly middle-aged coupled with children Oppermann (1995) found a bimodal distribution defined by couples and groups of four.Â The findings of this study agreed Bramwell (1993:21) rural tourist appears to be more affluent and better educated, to seek quality and spend above-average amounts on holidays and Oppermann (1995) that although the environmental wisdom in Germany is that rural tourists are mostly middle-aged coupled with children Oppermann (1995) found a bimodal distribution defined by couples and groups of four.Â Concerning the first research question, the research showed that approach to allow a unique examination of the rural tourism in New Forest National Park. The results, as summarised in this chapter, Rural tourism is clearly very important through the New Forest National park and likely become more important as country.Â
Chapter5. Conclusions The research showed that there were recognised different types of tourist who looking for relaxation. Nature based experience type is most affected by self motivation and decision making fact. The results of the current study indicated that depending upon what decision consideration there were different motivation factors found among the potential tourists. In selecting National Forest National Park as a rural destination tourists were very likely to be motivated by relaxation and nature experience with other tourist's farm staying, escape from daily routine, nature education and looking for excitement. The general findings indicated that more attention needed to be successful rural tourism destination. The results of the current study indicated that depending upon what stage of decision process there were different motivation factors found among the potential tourists selecting the final destinations. Although some of tourists are wish to have some social interaction most of tourists are very likely to be motivated by relaxation with green nature. It appeared that tourists who already narrow down a number of alternative destinations seem to be very interested in taking a rural trip. Whereas the respondents who were in the initial stage of decision process were less likely to be motivated to take a rural trip. Conclusively, it is clear that the level of motivations on rural area destination is significant important as tourists close to the final decision to the New Forest National Park rural trip.
5.1 Limitations of the study Several limitations were identified in the methods for the study. First, sampling bias was assessed in this study. The actual sample size was 500 however, non respondent bias and refusal bias occurred in this study. In addition, the study has been focused on New Forest National Park, and the findings may not be relevant to other tourist locations in the UK.
5.3 Recommendations for future research The following recommendations are resulted from analysis for the findings that were previously discussed. It is recommended that future surveys be conducted using larger samples and random sampling methods, also, more research should be conducted in other rural destination to determine whether these findings apply to other area. Other larger research methodologies such as telephone survey, email questionnaire should be conducted to determine additional needs for rural tourism on New Forest National Park. Instead of viewing the motivation factors influencing rural destination choice this dissertation could help National park market planners or tourism operators to understand how the tourists reach the New Forest National Park as a rural tourism destination or may provide useful information for the UK rural tourism management research literature concerning rural tourism. When planners or tour operators marketing to the potential tourists the former should first understand the latter decision behaviour and then implement promotional strategies by more focus on relaxation and social orientation for the rural trip. Conclusively, it is clear that can narrow down the specific tourist types and it is important to market all different characterise people. Also, the motivation of destination considerations is of significant importance a tourists close to the final decision to select a specific tourism destination.
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(1991) The Good Tourist: A Worldwide Guide for the Green Traveller, London: mandarin. Williams,R.(1975) The Country and the City. Paladin, St. Albans. Yahoo Korea Dictionary. (2004). Yahoo Korea Dictionary http://www.newforestnpa.gov.uk/ Appendices Appendix A. Survey questionnaire My name is KYUSUK who is currently studying Travel & Tourism at the TVU University. This questionnaire is only for the New Forest National Park rural tourism dissertation purpose. The questionnaire will be destroyed as soon as submitted the project. It would be so helpful if you take a couple of minutes to answer this questionnaire carefully. Thank you very much. QUESTIONNAIRE Please choose the age group of you and accompanies and sex. Age groupÂ Sex Â·Â 1 to 10 (Â )Â M(Â )Â F(Â ) Â·Â 11 to 20 (Â )Â M(Â )Â F(Â ) Â·Â 21 to 30 (Â )Â M(Â )Â F(Â ) Â·Â 31 to 40 (Â )Â M(Â )Â F(Â ) Â·Â 41 to 51 (Â )Â M(Â )Â F(Â ) Â·Â Over (Â )Â M(Â )Â F(Â ) Marital status Â·Â Single(Â ) Â·Â Married(Â ) Â·Â Other(Â ) Education Â·Â Secondary school(Â ) Â·Â HND(Â ) Â·Â University(Â ) Â·Â Master(Â ) Â·Â PHD(Â ) Religion Â·Â None(Â ) Â·Â Catholic(Â ) Â·Â Muslim( ) Â·Â Buddhist(Â ) Â·Â Christianity(Â ) Â·Â Other(Â ) Please choose one of your professional? Â·Â Salesman(Â ) Â·Â Public worker(Â ) Â·Â Officer(Â ) Â·Â Driver(Â ) Â·Â Self employment(Â ) Â·Â Professional(Â ) Â·Â Student(Â ) Â·Â Unemployed(Â ) Â·Â Other(Â ) What transportation did you use for the trip? Â·Â Car(Â ) Â·Â Train(Â ) Â·Â Bus(Â ) Â·Â Motorbike(Â ) Â·Â Bicycle(Â ) Â·Â Other(Â ) If you stayed overnight during the trip please choose one of accommodation. Â·Â Hotel(Â ) Â·Â B&B(Â ) Â·Â Farm house(Â ) Â·Â Inn(Â ) Â·Â Friends/Family/relatives(Â ) Monthly income Â·Â Less than 500(Â ) Â·Â 500 to 1000 (Â ) Â·Â 1000 to 2000(Â ) Â·Â 2000 to 4000(Â ) Â·Â 4000 to 6000(Â ) Â·Â 6000 to 10,000(Â ) Â·Â 10,000 to 15,000(Â ) Â·Â Over(Â ) How many people on this trip include you? Â·Â Myself(Â ) Â·Â 2(Â ) Â·Â 3(Â ) Â·Â 4(Â ) Â·Â 5(Â ) Â·Â over(Â ) Where did you get information about New Forest National Park rural tourism? Â·Â TV (Â ) Â·Â Newspaper/magazine(Â ) Â·Â Internet (Â ) Â·Â Travel Agent(Â ) Â·Â Family/Friend (Â ) Â·Â Other(Â ) Select the category that best describes the party accompanying you on that rural tourism trip? Â·Â Alone(Â ) Â·Â Family(Â ) Â·Â Friends/relatives(Â ) Â·Â Colleagues(Â ) Â·Â Others(Â ) Please choose your satisfaction number with this rural tourism trip. Â·Â Very SatisfiedÂ (Â ) Â·Â SatisfiedÂ (Â ) Â·Â NeutralÂ (Â ) Â·Â DissatisfiedÂ (Â ) Â·Â Very dissatisfiedÂ (Â ) Reason of the chose to rural tourism in New Forest National Park trip ReasonsÂ Not very importantÂ <-> very important For nature study (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â To experience the nature (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â For and ecological experience (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â For an agricultural experience (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â To experience farm life (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â To visit a weekend farm (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â Because of local (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â Relaxation / refreshment (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â Away from the urban life (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â To visit family, relatives or friends (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â To experience country life style (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5Â Please choose the number that rate how important of beyond items when you decide to go to rural tourism trip to New Forest National Park. ItemsÂ Not very importantÂ <-> very important Distance (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5 Transportation (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5 Accessibility (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5 Natural environment (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5 Safe & Security (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5 Education (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5 Activities available (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5 Costs (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5 Scenery (Â )Â 1Â 2Â 3Â 4Â 5 How likely are you willing to participate again in rural tourism trip? Extremely likelyÂ <-> Extremely Unlikely 1(Â )Â 2(Â )Â 3(Â )Â 4 (Â )Â 5(Â ) If you are plan to participate in rural tourism again how many times would you do per year? Times (Â ) Thank you so much for your participation. I hope you all the best.
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