Tourism market in Mozambique
Tourism is the movement of people to destinations away from their place of residence for any reason other than following an occupation, remunerated from within the country visited for a period of more than 24hours. It is one of the world's fastest growing industries and an important source of foreign exchange and employment for many developing countries. Since crossing many of the primary needs of the population, when harnessed it can be a key instrument to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic promotion and given to its sustained growth and resilience, can also contribute to facing the main global challenges of our societies Mozambique is a country with a great potential to become a tourist destination at regional and international levels which origins from the relevant characteristics of its natural resources, cultural and historic value. But, despite the country's tourism potential, the increase in investments and number of international tourist's arrivals as well as its proximity to South Africa which is one of the world's top tourist destinations, it still far from the expected and has little expression to the regional and international levels as a tourist destination. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a greater understanding on tourism market in Mozambique as a tourist destination by analyzing the tourism market development from 2004 to 2009. The research study was based in literature review for theory and problem discussion and the data collected from the Mozambique's Tourism Ministry reports on tourism demand from 2004 to 2009. The study shows that the high costs of tourism services for the local people and their small capacity of investment are the main factors for the slow development of domestic tourism. The tourism development in Mozambique is different when analyzing each province and type of tourists. Leisure and holidays is the main reason for visiting the country, followed by business and conference and, lastly visit relatives and friends. It also shows that its important to create guidelines to brand destinations differently and design specific tourism plans, according to specific characteristics of the tourist zones, create new marketing strategies which aim not only international tourists but also domestic tourists and specific policies for domestic tourism development, create incentive programs which stimulate and encourage the use of local architecture design and materials by local and foreign investors, create policies that stimulate and facilitate participation of the local communities in tourism projects, employment, training food furnishings and crafts and, complementary products.
Tourism is the movement of people to destinations away from their place of residence for any reason other than following an occupation, remunerated from within the country visited for a period of more than 24hours (wikibooks.org). It is one of the world's fastest growing industries and an important source of foreign exchange and employment for many developing countries. With destinations not only in industrialized countries, but also in less developed countries in East Africa, Central America and South East Asia, when harnessed, tourism can be a key instrument to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic promotion, since crossing many of the primary needs of the population. (World Tourism Organization, 1996). According to Salgado e Cravo (1999), tourism industry employs about 204.000.000 persons in all over the world, generates 655.000 millions of dollars in taxes and pays 1.7000.000 millions in salary which make it a very important activity in the world. Due to the income generated by the consumption of goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry, and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism, it has become vital for many countries and a popular global leisure activity(www.sidestore.com/) and also a factor of social stability, mutual understanding among individuals and peoples and acquired an important cultural and moral dimension. Tourism can be an efficient tool to advance international peace and understanding. It is growing steadily and needs to be viewed in its social, cultural and ethical dimensions and therefore in its potential to alliance of civilizations. It shares with religions and civilizations values such as tolerance, respect of diversity, respect of nature, rediscovery of oneself and of the others. Given its sustained growth and resilience, the sector is in fact, in ideal position to contribute to facing the main global challenges of our societies (www.world tourism.org). According to the manila declaration, 1980, tourism is an essential activity for the life of nations due to its direct effects on cultural, social, educational and economic sectors of the national societies and their international relationships. Its contribution to national economy and international trade makes it a significant factor in world development and one of the main economic activities in the world through its function in national economy, international transactions and in securing balance of payments equilibrium. Tourism that focuses on natural environments is a large and growing part of the tourism industry. While it can contribute in a positive manner to socio-economic development and environmental protection, uncontrolled tourism growth can also cause environmental degradation, destruction of fragile ecosystems, and social and cultural conflict, undermining the basis of tourism. The intangible nature of tourism industry services makes its quality control difficult but crucial and more difficult for potential costumers to evaluate and compare service offerings. In addition, instead of moving the product to costumer, the costumer must travel to the product which means spent money and time. As an industry, tourism has many components comprising to the overall travel experience. Along with transportation, it includes accommodations, food and beverage services, shops, entertainment, aesthetics and special events. To overcome this hurdle tourism, related businesses, agencies and organizations need to work together to package and promote tourism opportunities and align their efforts to assure consistency in product quality (Mahoney and Warnell, 1987). The different definitions of tourism in each country, the difference in census techniques, the great mobility of tourists and its several motivations, the heterogeneity tourism types are some reasons which make the tourism a difficult statistic object in definition and measurement (Salgado e Cravo, 1999). Manila declaration 1980 says that tourism resources (space facilities and values) are available in various countries in risk of deterioration and destruction and belong to heritage mankind. The development of tourist activities cannot be prejudicial to economic and social interests of the population in tourist areas, to the environment and to the natural resources. The national and international communities and the states are responsible for preservation and conservation of historical, cultural and religious sites at all times. In order to maximize tourism's poverty reduction potential, multiple strategies may be required that combine action at the destination, at national policy level, and internationally. Since one organization cannot operate effectively at all three levels, complementary actions by different stakeholders are required at all levels to enhance the positive outcomes of tourism. The destination level relies primarily on initiatives by private companies, NGOs, and the communities themselves. Nationally the governments can reduce obstacles to informal sector participation. Internationally, the promotion of responsible consumer and business behavior and the establishment of enforceable international industry codes of conduct can also contribute towards poverty reduction potential of tourism (Ashley, Boyd and Goodwin, 2000, p6).
1.1. Significance of the research Mozambique is a country with a great potential to become a tourist destination at regional and international levels which origins from the relevant characteristics of its natural resources, cultural and historic value. Its distinct local style consists of a blend of African, Arab and Portuguese influences and provides a contrast to the other southern African countries, offering an unique historical and cultural heritage, tropical beaches, coral reefs, spectacular landscapes, intriguingly rich architecture and small desolated islands close to the coast, Mozambique is one of the most enticing tourist destinations in Southern Africa. In 2001, the country received about 400 thousands tourists, about 80% of the arrivals in Tanzania which is a country with the same natural characteristics and product lines but without the same proximity and access routes to south africa (one of the world's top tourist destination). In the same period, South Africa received 6 million of tourists and according to WTO, is expecting to receive 30 million tourists in 2020.The tourism contribution to the Gross Domestic Product in Mozambique was also relactively low (1,2% in 2001). In 2002, the country received 900 thousands tourists mostly from the neihgboring countries. In south Africa, the sector contributes with about 8% to the national economy, in Sub-Saharian Africa with about 6.5% of the GDP and in the world with 10.2% of the GDP. According to tourism in Mozambique.wikipedia.The free encyclopedia, by the end of 1990s tourism was the best growing sector of Mozambique's economy and in 2005 the country registered the fastest growth rate in the world. Despite the country's tourist potential, the obvious increase in investments and number of international tourist's arrivals as well as its proximity to South Africa, it stills far from the expected and has little expression to the regional and international levels as a tourist destination, so, this research intends to analyze the tourism market development in Mozambique as a tourist destination from 2003 to 2008 and identify how to attract new tourist markets.
1.3. Problem discussion Tourism is an attractive tool for economic development, especially in the developing world and has assisted many developing countries to move away from a dependency on agriculture and manufacturing (Tooman, 1997 cited by Kabia, 2005). Chosen for its ability to bring in needed foreign exchange earnings, income and employment; it has become a popular addition to economic development policies in many African, Asian, South and Central American countries. Although it seems to be adding substantially to the economic growth of many of these regions, many developing countries are not reaping to full benefits from tourism. More than two thirds of the revenue from international tourism never reaches the local economy because of high foreigner exchange leakage. Understanding the many ways that tourism profits can leak out of an economy and, devising strategies to minimize could make tourism a more effective economic development agent (kabia, 2005). Worldwide, international tourist arrivals in 1999 are estimated at approximately 700 million, resulting in over $500 billion in tourist receipts and tourism generates nearly 250 million jobs worldwide (kabia, 2005).the increasing fascination potential economic benefits for destination areas(kabia, 2005).In the past two decades increased attention to the negative social, cultural and environmental impacts of tourism has also emerged, calling for more careful planning and management of tourism development (WTO, 1996). According to (Harrison & Husbands, 1996 cited by kabia, 2005) achieving sustainable tourism (the one that maintains economic benefits and limits associated negative impacts), lie in minimizing negative impacts by strategies such as environmental and social impact analysis, community control and segmenting markets. The potential economic benefits of tourism are a major attraction for developing countries due to three pro-tourism arguments: the trend in demand for international travel is projected to continue at astonishing rates due to the economic stability and travel preferences of people in the developed regions such as Europe, Asia and North America ; the income elasticity of demand for tourism means that the household incomes of people in the developed world increase, more disposable income will be directed towards travel and, developing countries are in need of foreign exchange earnings to support their economic development initiatives and to satisfy the demands of their residents (kabia, 2005). Today traveling for pleasure (leisure, recreation holidays and visiting friends and relatives) is the most common form of traveling. People have a number of different motivations for traveling. Some people travel for sun, sand and sea while others, are most interested in cultural and sporting activities associated with the travel. When surveyed people tend to list the following reasons for travel (Walker, 2004): - To experience new and different surroundings - To experience different cultures - To rest and relax - To visit friends and family - To view or participate in sporting recreational activities According to the same author, longer life spans (people live longer and have better health), flexible working hours, early retirement, greater ease of travel, tendency to take shorter but more frequent trips and increase on standard of living are factors contributing to an increase on number of traveling in the coming years. The future travel patterns are vary hard to predict but there are number of trends and factors that will definitely impact on how, where, when and why we are going to travel. Visitors often come from particular socioeconomic layer of the population of industrialized countries and capital surplus, which requires relatively sophisticated market research to identify and analyze and profiles the preferences of these visitors. Although in these countries a prosperous minority exists that is capable of undertaking domestic tourism, many inhabitants lack the income and wherewithal to travel, so, the research must not focus only on measurement of domestic tourism but on ways and means to improve access of underprivileged layers of the population to holidays and travel, and on devising economical, but adequate means of supply (accommodation and transportation) to achieve this aim (kabia, 2005) As we know, when harnessed, tourism can be a key instrument to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic promotion, since crossing many of the primary needs of the population.
1.4. Research approach According to Denscombe, 1998, the research approaches can be divided in two: qualitative and quantitative. A quantitative study is associated with numbers as the unit of analysis, analysis, large scale studies, a specific focus, researcher detachment and a predetermined research design while a qualitative study is associated with words as the unit of analysis, description, small scale studies, holistic perspective, researcher involvement and an emergent research design. This thesis is a research quantitative since it uses numbers as unit of analysis of the tourism market as a tourist destination in Mozambique. According to Fretchling (2001), the careful forecaster will inquire into how the data to be used was collected and processed to understand what measurement anomalies may be present and how much of the variation through time is due to sampling error. My study was based in already existing data records, which made it difficult to predict and prevent eventual mistakes occurred during the data collection process, but some studies indicate that is difficult to determine the economic performance of the tourism sector in Mozambique due to difficulties in collecting data and statistical indicators of some revenue like, average rates of occupancy and international flows in the country.
1.5. Outline of the thesis The presented thesis is basically composed by four parts: Introduction - this part introduces the area of study, presents the significance of the research, problem discussion, research approach, outline of the thesis and finally the purpose of the thesis. Methodology - this part gives a brief and clear description of the methods used when conducting the study. Mozambique's tourism sector overview - this part presents a general description on tourism in Mozambique Findings, conclusions and recommendations - the final part, reaches and describes the research purpose by analyzing, commenting and suggesting on how to improve the performance of the tourism sector in Mozambique.
2. Research purpose The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a greater understanding of tourism market in Mozambique as a tourist destination by analyzing the tourism market development from 2004 to 2009, through: - characterizing the tourism market development in Mozambique from 2004 to 2008; - Identifying some of the main constraints and contributing factors to tourism development in Mozambique. - Identifying how to attract new tourism markets
3.1. Literature review To make the study clear and well planned, first was used the method of library research which means that the information was taken from different sources related to tourism industry. Denscombe (1998, p. 58) cited by tese2, says that a research should always start with a literature review that: - shows that the researcher is aware of the available existing work already undertaken in the area - identifies what the researcher takes to be the key issues, the crucial questions and the obvious gaps in the current state of knowledge - provide signposts for the reader about where the research is coming from - it allows the reader to see which theories and principles have been influential in shaping the approach adopted in the proposed research In this study, databases Elsevier Direct Science was used in order to find full text studies from academic journals that are related the area of research using search words such as: Tourism, Ecotourism, Tourism analysis, Destination, Destination Marketing, Destination Management, Tourism in developing countries, Tourism market in Mozambique. Public libraries, websites like, jstor.org, WTO.org, MINTUR.org, as well as textbooks and doctoral thesis were also used to find more theory, gain more insight and latest information about the research area. The research was based on data records on tourism market demand in Mozambique from 2004 to 2009 received from the Ministry of tourism, planning and cooperation department.
3.3. Research strategy The research strategy consists of a quantitative method for collecting and analyzing data. Tourism demand data can be compiled from administrative reports such as counts of tickets sold, passenger carried for transportation. Theme parks, museums and other attractions also produce administrative records. Commercial lodging places in most countries are required to keep careful records of the number of guests and length of stay. Sample surveys and direct observation are also techniques used to estimate tourism demand data. (Fretchling, 2001). These are also the main methods used in Mozambique to estimate the tourist demand. Due to lack of resources in terms of time and money I had to limit myself to the Mozambique's Tourism Ministry reports on tourism demand. The information collected was related to Mozambique's tourism market from 2004 to 2008. Information retrieval, libraries and other related information centers were also consulted and, relying on the data collected that enabled to organize and guide this study and its analysis, was written this research report.
4. Tourism in Mozambique
4.1. Mozambique's tourism sector overview
4.1.1. General information about Mozambique Mozambique is located on the southeast coast of Africa, to the east is the Indian Ocean; to the north, Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia; to the west, Zimbabwe and South Africa and to the south Swaziland and South Africa. The country has a total area of 799380 kmÂ² with approximately 20 millions of inhabitants of a diverse cultural environment with several ethnic groups and religions (tourism guide)ï¼Œit is ranked 33rd country in the world according to its size. It is formed by 11 provinces and its capital is Maputo. Portuguese is the official language but the linguistic diversity is one of its main cultural characteristics. Each ethnical group has its own language and for the majority of the population, mainly in rural areas, the national idioms are the mother tongue and the one most used on a daily basis (tourism guide). Most educated people speak English which is used in schools and business as second or third language. Altogether this accounts to approximately 43 different languages. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Mozambique). There are many religions in Mozambique but the 1997 census showed, 23.8% Catholics, 17.8% Muslims, 17.5% Zionist Christians, 17.8% other, 23.1% none (www.indexmundi.com/mozambique/religions.htm).
4.1.2. Tourism in Mozambique Mozambique is a country of contrasts and extreme beauty, with attractions ranging from crystalline beaches, nature reserves and parks, plenty of opportunities for fine adventure and business travel and a huge historic and cultural value which attract tourists from all over the world interested in adventure, leisure, business, ecotourism, religious tourism and others(MINTUR, 1999). The country is now investing on recovering of its wildlife, with a great variety of nature reserves, and its likewise devoting resources to tourism with a high quality hunting safaris, but at the same time working to develop greater awareness of the natural environment. In the towns and cities, a great diversity of history and culture is melded into the architecture and the pulse of daily history life can be felt from the bustle of the markets to the striking handicrafts, from the museums to the bars and restaurants (tourist guide, 2007). Due to its nature diversity composed by tropical and crystalline beaches, with hot water creating opportunities to practice fishing and aquatic sports, sub aquatic richness composed by varieties of species, animals, coral reefs and rich in archaeological finds with great ecological value is known as "the Indian pearl" (MINTUR, 1999) and considered one of the world's new sanctuaries (tourist guide, 2007).
4.1.3. Tourism development in Mozambique Tourism has become regulated and supported by the colonial government in the second half of the 50ths with the creation of the first information and tourism centers and establishment of the first tourist zones. In this period the tourism was basically characterized by safari tourism with international character (around 50% of tourists were Americans) leading to regeneration of the campsite service to the detriment of the hotels. After the independence (in 1975) there was a great depression in national tourism industry as result of the difficult relationship with the two countries in the region which formed the main market (south Africa and Zimbabwe), lack of technician to plan and manage the tourism sector, the armed conflict that destroyed the tourist infrastructure as well as the flora and wildlife, and blocked access to communication and transportation. The tourism industry was basically constituted by international cooperation missions. The end of the civil war (in 1992) and the development of the structural adjustment program defined a restoration program for tourism sector considering tourism as a sector of maximization of foreign currency entry and job generation, to enhance regional development and distribute its benefits to all areas of the country as well as to project a prestigious image of Mozambique abroad and promote greater involvement of national enterprises in tourism undertakings. Due to the speed and decentralization in evaluation and approval of projects, improvement of security in business environment, resulting from the new program implementation, there was a rapid growth of investment in the sector, goods and services as well as travel agencies and promotion of national and domestic tourism campaigns. According to (MINTUR, 1999), the ministry of tourism is the central organ of the state which is responsible, in accordance with the principles, aims and tasks defined by the government, for the application of the policy for the tourism in the public, private and community domains. The tourism law, is the instrument used, was established bearing that Mozambique has tourism resources that place it in a favorable and competitive position in the regional and international tourism market, and considering that tourism needs to be developed in a sound, sustainable way in accordance with its cross cutting nature, recognizing tourism's eminently dynamic character in promoting jobs and generating foreign currency, and the need to bring existing legislation up to date, it is incumbent upon the state to update relevant legal instruments (MINTUR,1999).
4.1.4. Tourist zones Mozambique is very rich in natural resources (land, sea, fauna and flora). The type of land and climate has created three different varieties of vegetation, dense forestland in the high parts of north and centre of the country, woodland and savannah in the south and mangrove along the coastline. In terms of wildlife a variety of species can be found in these ecosystems as well as beautiful landscapes and views along the coast and in the higher mountainous areas (tourism guide, 1999). The tourist zones in Mozambique are subdivided into three (north, center and south) with different geophysics characteristics, socio economic development and tourist profiles (Salgado e Cravo, 1999). a) North (rich in cultural resources) With a unique identity in Southern Africa, the region is composed by Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Niassa and ZambÃ©zia provinces. (3) Due to its great touristy potential and tourism products which need to be exploited is called the "Jewel of Tourism (2) Tourism is mainly concentrated in Nampula, Nacala and Pemba cities. (2) Is an exclusive destination for international and regional markets, with beaches and tropical islands, scuba diving and deep-sea fishing activities, with a strong cultural influence and Strong market opportunities for eco and hunting tourism (3) There is a growing interest by investors in new project infrastructure such as hotels, hostels, campsites and others. (3) The marine life and the beauty of probably one of the world's most beautiful archipelagos, the Quirimbas archipelagos, the forest intact and extensive part of the Niassa Reserve and the unique biodiversity of Lake Niassa.(2) In this region, outstands, "ilha de moÃ§ambique" (mankind heritage by UNESCO), Ibo island (with a wonderful marine life), Quirimbas archipelago,Niassa reserve and Niassa lake (tourism guide, 1999) a) Mozambique island b) Mozambique island c) Niassa Lake d) Ibo island b) Center (rich in natural resources) Composed by Sofala, Manica and Tete provinces, this region is based on nature and wildlife, characterized by business facilities, beaches, exotic animals (is what really attracts tourists) around conservation and preservation of wild species areas. It's an exclusive destination for adventure tourism and ecotourism for specialized markets (Hiking, appreciation of birds, hunting, fishing, ecotourism) and important to the business market and sun, sand and sea tourism for domestic and regional markets (3) The city of Beira is the country's second city and an important regional economic center. Its port plays an important role in linking Mozambique with Zimbabwe and other neighboring countries located in the center and the city's tourism is based on commerce and trade.(2) In this region highlights are, Gorongoza national park (was one of the most famous in southern Africa), Chimanimani and Marromeu reserves and, electrical barriers of Cahora Bassa and Chicamba Real (tourism guide, 1999). a) Gorongoza national park b) Gorongoza national park c) Electrical barrier of Cahora Bassa d) Electrical barrier of Chicamba Real c) South (rich in coastal and marine resources) Composed by Maputo, Maputo City, Gaza e Inhambane provinces,is a perfect national and regional destination for sun, sand and sea and water sports holidays (3). This region is benefiting from considerably higher levels of development and has the best infrastructure of the whole country and concentrates almost 50% of the national tourism (over 50% of the total of registered establishments and 65% of the total beds). With a vast coastline with beaches and tropical waters and marine resources of exceptional quality (3), and beautiful landscapes, the region is characterized by business and leisure tourism. Maputo concentrates business tourism, while leisure tourism basically composed by diving, eco-tourism and culture (3) is progressing satisfactorily in various parts of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane provinces. (2) The tourist infrastructures in this region are accessible and of the most varied ranges.The beaches of Vilanculos, bazaruto,Bilene, Xai Xai, Macaneta are essential for a good family tourism, Ponta do Ouro and Ponta Malongane are the major poles of attraction for watersports tourism practitioners and enthusiasts.(2) The fact that this part of the Mozambican tourist attractions have derived from the ecological environment, the occurrence of natural phenomena, reinforces the interest of tourists to know and enjoy the privilege of coming in contact with such beautiful landscapes.(3) The highlights are Limpopo National park, Bazaruto archipelago, and special elephant's reserve (Tourism guide, 1999). a) Elephant's reserve b) Limpopo national park c) Aechipelago of Bazaruto d) Aechipelago of Bazaruto
5. Literature review
5.1.1. Definition Destinations have emerged as the fundamental unit of analysis in tourism (WTO, 2002) and form pillar in any modeling of the tourism system as most tourism activities take place at the destination (Pike, 2005). A tourist destination is defined as a physical space where visitors spend at least one overnight (WTO) or as the focus of facilities and services designed to meet the needs of tourists (Cooper et al, 1998). It includes tourism products such as support services and attractions, and tourism resources within one day's return travel. It has physical and administrative boundaries defining its management, and images and perceptions defining its market competitiveness (WTO). A tourist destination describes a geographical space which provides all parts of a destination's supply (attractions, amenities and access) to satisfy the needs of specific tourism segments during their vacation or it includes elements of the supply chain: accommodation and gastronomy, entertainment and leisure time amenities, transportation, information. While these services are delivered by different suppliers, they are offered to their consumers as one unit. The destination's dimension or size is perceived differently by the visitors depending on: its distance to the visitor's place of origin, its popularity and image as well as the visitor's travel experience (Kloiberï¼Œ2008). According to Buhalis (2000), it can be characterized as the six frameworks: - Attractions (natural, man made, artificial, purpose built, heritage, special events) - Accessibility ( entire transportation system comprising of routes, terminals and vehicles) - Amenities (accommodation and catering facilities, retailing, other tourist services) - Available packages ( pre arranged packages intermediaries and principals) - Activities (all activities available at the destination and what consumers will do during their visit) - Ancillary services ( services used by tourists such as banks, telecommunications, posts, newsagents, hospitals, etc)
5.1.2. Destination marketing Marketing management is defined as the process of analyzing, planning, implementing, coordinating and controlling programs involving the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of products, services and ideas designed to create and maintain beneficial exchanges with target markets for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives (Moutinho, 2000). Destination marketing is an integral part of developing and retaining a particular location's popularity. Is the management process through which the national tourist organizations or enterprises identify their selected tourists, actual and potential, communicate with them to ascertain and influence their wishes, needs, motivations, likes and dislikes, on local, regional, national and international levels, and to formulate and adapt their tourist products accordingly in view to achieving optimal satisfaction thereby fulfilling their objectives (wahab et al, 1976). Marketing a destination, from the supply side, includes diverse range of objectives destination attributes, including natural features, commercial and not-for-profit facilities and amenities, and people. For example: commercial visitor attractions such as theme parks; accommodation; outdoor adventure activities such as whitewater rafting; dinning and nightlife; shopping precincts and craft markets; historic sites and scenes of disaster; beaches; museums; picnic and barbecue amenities; children's playgrounds; forests and parklands; landscape vistas; climate; flora and fauna; host population characteristics such as language and indigenous culture (Pike, 2005). On the demand side of a destination marketing the global market of consumer travelers is not homogeneous in terms of needs (Wahab et all 1976 cited by Pike, 2005), travelers from different geographic areas, socio demographic groups, and lifestyles clusters will respond to different offers for a complex array of reasons including, purpose of travel, individual motivations, time available, the time of the year and, availability of other discretionary spending opportunities (Pike, 2005). Destination marketing is increasingly demanding with rising customer expectations and intensifying competition between destinations and between tourism and alternative purchases. In response, more sophisticated marketing is used including product development, enhanced promotional imagery and targeting specific market segments. The development of cohesive destination image and the development of cohesive destination organizations go hand in hand (Faulkner et al, 2001). According to Buhalis (2000), four key common strategic objectives are addressed by destination marketing organizations described as: - Enhance the long-term prosperity of local people - Delight visitors by maximizing their satisfaction - Maximize profitability of local enterprises and maximize multiplier effects - Optimize tourism impacts by ensuring a sustainable balance between economic benefits and socio-cultural and environmental costs. According to Pike (2005), marketers must communicate meaningful but focused messages, at the right time and to the right people. They should produce succinct massages that: encapsulate essence of place, differentiate the destination from the competitors offering the same features and be meaningful to heterogeneous and dynamic markets.
5.1.3. Destination branding Destination Brand is a name symbol, logo, word or other graphic that identifies and differentiates the destination. It conveys the promise of a memorable travel experience that is uniquely associated with the destination and also serves to consolidate and reinforce the recollection of pleasurable memories of the destination experience (Ritchie and Ritchie, 1998 used by Pike, 2005). Brand is a distinctive product offering created by the use of a name, symbol, design, or some combination of these, intended to differentiate it from its competitors (Jobber, 2004) and branding is the process by which companies distinguish their product offerings from the competitor (Jobber, 2004) The purpose of branding is to differentiate the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers from those pf competitors (Kotler et al., 1993 cited by Faulkner et al, 2001). It is defined as the set of marketing that: - Support the creation of a name, symbol, logo, word mark or other graphic that readily identifies and differentiates a destination; - Consistently convey the expectation of a memorable travel experience that is uniquely associated with the destination; - Serve to consolidate and reinforce the emotional connection between the visitor and the destination; - Reduce search costs and perceived risk. These activities serve to create a destination image that positively influences the consumer destination choice, Kotler et al., 1993 cited by (Faulkner et al, 2001). The essential advantage of branding is that it creates a favorable position for the destination and its integral products, enabling clients to distinguish it from competitors on attributes which are significant to their motivations (Faulkner et al, 2001). An effective destination branding requires a unique selling proposition since many destinations promote similar attributes such as scenery, history and culture. This proposition needs to be sustainable, believable, relevant and attractive for competitors so that they would like to copy, but cannot surpass or take over. In the tourism industry is important to incorporate the concept of visitor experience into the branding process (Blain et al. 2005). A good position brand is characterized by four attributes described as: functional attributes (the tangible features of a product or service), emotional and symbolic features (the intangible features which meet consumer needs for social approval, personal expression or self-esteem), experiential attributes (relates to what it feels to use the product or service and satisfy internally generated needs for stimulation and variety) and, brand attributes (define a consumer's overall evaluation of a brand, which is closely linked to the perceived quality of s brand). Branding a place or destination is important since countries, cities and tourism destinations are increasingly competing in an attempt to attract tourists, new residents, businesses and investments into their areas. Globalization of competition, increased mobility of investments and skilled labor, greater openness of markets, impact of technological changes as well as changing tourism consumer markets have created considerable challenges and fascinating opportunities to places. It is a tool to increase value creation capability of the place, and help to reach its strategic objectives and contribute to wellbeing of a place by: attracting investments, companies and travelers; presenting the place as an attractive place to live and attracting skilled labor; supporting the interests of export industries; strengthening citizen's identity and increases self-esteem and enhancing the opportunities of public diplomacy.
5.1.4. Destination management Destination management is defined as the utility for the strategic development marketing of innovation and integrated marketable core businesses of tourism regions in global challenge (destination management, wd).The term is not only related to business with pure economical objectives but also to institutions such as a destination (Kloiberï¼Œ2008) and is designed to improve the destinations competitiveness (destination management, wd) . Managing tourism destinations is an important part of controlling tourism's environmental impacts. Destination management include land use planning, business permits and zoning controls, environmental and other regulations, business association initiatives, and a host of other techniques to shape the development and daily operation of tourism-related activities ï¼ˆUNEP-DTIE - Sustainable Tourism Projectï¼‰. Its tasks include representation of interests; coordination and monitoring of tourism organizations; middleman between different actors; evaluation of the competitiveness; conception and planning (long-term development); supply planning (bundling offers) and marketing (destination management, wd). Some authors refer to destination management as "integrated management in tourism" with subdivisions into three vertical and three horizontal dimensions(Kloiberï¼Œ2008) :
1. from the horizontal perspective - Normative management: is dealing with the overall objective or vision, principles, norms and policies which ensure the viability of the destination on a long term view. In this context, a joint vision and comprehensive guideline should create orientation and sense to all relevant stakeholders involved in the planning and management of a destination. While a cooperate identity and cooperate mission are increasing the motivations of members and involved stakeholders, a cooperate image is externally oriented and affects the perception and legitimacy in public. - Strategic management: is dealing with the conception and formulation of concrete activities and expected results. A concept or strategy is oriented towards predefined long-term objectives and goals - Operative management: is dealing with the identification and controlling of ongoing concrete activities. It is oriented towards the implementation of activities primarily defined by the strategy.
2. from the vertical perspective - Activities: which according to the vision and policies have been formulated in strategic concepts - Structures: which on the upper level are defined in constitutions or statutes and put in practice by the respective organizational structure and management system - Human behavior: which is including the aspects like cooperate culture, capacities and performances and, the ability to react to problems Destination management is complicated by the fact that a single, recognizable destination may include several municipalities, provinces, or other government entities - in island environments it may be the entire country (UNEP-DTIE - Sustainable Tourism Project)ï¼‰. Managing a destination needs professional human resources and organizational structure which is responsible for destination management. The tasks don't need to be fulfilled by a single tourism organization, some can be outsourced or they vary depending on the organization geographic level (local, regional or national) and size of its area of intervention. (Kloiberï¼Œ2008) Destination Management Organizations (DMOs or tourism organizations) are instruments used to manage a destination (destination management, wd) and are usually composed by, Participating governance structures led by local authorities, local NGOs, community and indigenous representatives, academia, and local chambers of commerce. They often take the form of local tourism boards, councils, or development organizations. The network of local tourism businesses (hotels, attractions, transportation services, service providers such as guides and equipment rentals, restaurants) are also a significant part of a destinationï¼ˆUNEP-DTIE - Sustainable Tourism Projectï¼‰.
5.2. Demand analysis Demand is the schedule of the amount of any product or service that people are willing and able to buy at each specific price in a set of possible prices during specified period of time (Goeldner et al., 2000). The amount of demand traveling to a particular destination is of great importance to tourism industry and the vital data include: - How many visitors arrived? - By what means of transportation; - How long they stayed and in what type of accommodations; - How much money was spent? There many methods and techniques to forecast demand which is very important for planning future tourism development (Goeldner et al., 2000). Countries harnessing tourism for economic benefits often skip its non-economic impacts (social, cultural, environmental and ecological) due to factors such as: there is a very little systemized analysis and documentation on this aspect; non-economic aspects comprises multiplicity of sub aspects interrelated and interactive show that is not always easy to work out the net final consequences of a given initial tourism promotion effort and; in each space time a particular country or its region/ sub region at different point of time may be characterized by certain features, endowments and specific constraints making difficult or even impossible to evolve generalized promotional package strategy ( Makan, 2006). The demand to a destination can be described as the function of person's propensity to travel and the reciprocal of the resistance of the link between origin and destination areas (Goeldner et al., 2000): D = f (propensity, resistance) Where: D is demand Propensity - person's predisposition to travel (how willing is the person to travel, what types of travel experience he prefers, and what types of destinations are considered). It depends on the tourist's psychographic file and travel motivation, demographic or socioeconomic status and marketing effectiveness. Propensity is directly related to demand. Resistance - relates to the relative attractiveness of various destinations and it's a function of several variables such as: a) Economic distance: relates to the time and cost involved in traveling from the origin to the destination. The higher the economic distance, the higher the resistance for that destination and consequently, the lower demand. b) Cultural distance: refers to the extent to which the culture of the area from which the tourist originates differs from the culture of the host region. In general, the greater cultural distance, the greater will be the resistance. But some times it might be opposite. c) The cost of tourist services at the destination: the higher the cost of services at the destination, the higher the resistance to travel to that destination, therefore, the lower the demand. d) The quality of services at the destination: the higher the quality of service the lower the resistance to travel to the destination. Its important to consider that quality is a personal matter and perceived in different ways, what is quality for one is not for another and if tourist does not previously travel to that destination cannot judge accurately the services there. Destination area must be meticulous in projecting an accurate image. e) Seasonality: the attractiveness of a given destination will depend on the time of year which a vacation is planned. Tourist's demand profile research is an important tool to define some economic and social tourist's characters and some aspects of their trip. The acquaintance of the tourist's demand profile is important to tourism planning and marketing in order to make maximum profit with minimal economic and social negative impacts due to their activities development and, to provide services oriented to their needs. The tourist demand is influenced by the product prices and other goods and services, tourist incomes as well as his likes. The price and quality of the services is the basis for tourists to maintain a positive image and return more times to the same tourism destination or hotel (Delfino et al, 2005). The ability to market a hotel in the appropriate way to the appropriate market is essential to the success of the business. Managers need to understand the product they are selling and the market to which is being sold (Lockyer, 2007).
6. Results and analysis According to cooper et al, 1993, tourism is classified in two distinct forms, domestic and international tourism. Domestic tourism refers to travel within the country of residence and there are rarely currency, language or visa implications and its more difficult to measure than international tourism. International tourism involves travel outside the country of residence and there are currency, language and visa implications. The collected data shows that, the tourism industry in Mozambique is growing significantly. This growth is basically aided, by the government efforts to promote it domestically and abroad through introduction of new policies in order to improve and create facilities to leisure and business tourism and, improvement of tourism infrastructures and facilities. From 2004 to 2008 about 60% of the arrivals corresponded to tourists representing in this way the tourism sector (Table 1). The number of beds at collective accommodation establishments rose from 13807 to 17947 in the same period (figure1). In 2004 the yearly income for the tourism sector was 95.3 million US$. This amount has increased year after year since, to 199 million US$ in 2008. A total of about 718.06 million US$ in incomes was reached from 2004 to 2008. A total amount of about 3046.412 billions was invested in tourism infrastructures projects and accommodation establishments. 2007 was the most successful year in investments which amounted to 977.201 million US$ Table 1 .Number of international arrivals (%)
.Total numbers of tourist arrivals From 2004 to 2008, the data records a relative stability in the average number of overnight stays at collective accommodation establishments for the total (domestic and international) number of tourists (Table 2). Table 2 .average overnight stays in days
|Nr. Arrivals ||2004 ||2005 ||2006 ||2007 ||2008 |
|Tourists ||66.1 ||60.6 ||60.7 ||61.2 ||68 |
|Others ||33.9 ||49.4 ||39.3 ||38.8 ||32 |
|total ||711000 ||954000 ||1095000 ||1259000 ||1508054 | 2005 registered the highest overnight stays 1043132 with 576490 (55.3%) international tourists and 466642 (44.1%) domestic tourists (table 3). Table 3 .Total of overnight stays guests (tourists)
|Year ||2004 ||2005 ||2006 ||2007 ||2008 ||2009 * |
|Days ||2 ||2.02 ||2.1 ||1.9 ||1.9 ||1.8 | The high costs of tourism services for the local people and their small capacity of investment, considering that business tourism is one of the main reasons for visiting the country, are probably why the domestic tourism is growing slowly, meanwhile, the great businesses opportunities and facilities, improvement of tourism infrastructures and housing conditions as well as introduction of government policies to improve and create facilities to leisure and business tourism are reasons for the rapid growth on international tourism. Based primarily on hospitality sector data (fig. 1), which show that from 2004 to 2009, 2004 registered the lowest number of tourists, 319834, with 50.2% corresponding to international arrivals and 2008 registered the highest number of tourists, 502156 with 51.2% of international arrivals. But according to the same data, the number of international tourist's arrivals is decreasing year on year since 2006, from 56.8% in 2006 to 51.2% in 2008 (Table 4). Table 4 .Number of guests/ tourists (%)
|Guests ||2004 ||2005 ||2006 ||2007 ||2008 ||2009 * |
|Domestic ||298019 ||466642 ||362614 ||393146 ||436998 ||96496 |
|International ||402731 ||576490 ||529236 ||479155 ||455888 ||90737 |
|Total ||700750 ||1043132 ||891850 ||872301 ||892886 ||187233 | As shown in the figure below (table 5), the province of Manica registered the lowest number of tourists every year except from 2008 registered by Nacala province. Maputo city is the province which registered the highest number of tourists every years followed by Inhambane and Sofala. Tete province has the lowest percentage of international tourists (18.8%) and Maputo city the highest (81.4%). The crescent trend on tourism in Maputo province is generally due to the fact that is the country's capital city, has the best tourism infrastructure in the whole country and concentrates half of the total number of beds in the country as well as the best business opportunities and facilities and its large range of investment possibilities. Table 5 .Total number of tourists by province
|Tourist ||2004 ||2005 ||2006 ||2007 ||2008 ||2009 * |
|Domestic ||49.4 ||49.8 ||43.2 ||45.8 ||48.8 ||52.4 |
|international ||50.6 ||50.2 ||56.8 ||54.2 ||51.2 ||47.6 |
|Total ||319834 ||498266 ||419752 ||474364 ||502156 ||109186 |
|province ||Tourists (%) ||2004 ||2005 ||2006 ||2007 ||2008 ||2009* |
|Niassa ||Domestic ||84.4 ||83.2 ||81.7 ||84.2 || ||85.2 |
|Foreign ||15.6 ||16.8 ||18.3 ||15.8 || ||14.8 |
|Total ||13671 ||26122 ||15782 ||14957 ||14265 ||3373 |
|Cabo Delgado ||Domestic ||39.7 ||41.3 ||33.7 ||36.8 ||41.4 ||57.3 |
|international ||60.3 ||58.7 ||66.3 ||63.2 ||58.6 ||42.7 |
|Total ||20677 ||31433 ||23039 ||23208 ||27392 ||2999 |
|Nacala ||Domestic ||78.7 ||78.4 ||76.2 ||76.7 ||77.5 ||78.1 |
|international ||21.3 ||21.6 ||23.8 ||23.3 ||22.5 ||21.9 |
|Total ||10345 ||18794 ||11003 ||11436 ||12474 ||2758 |
|zambezia ||Domestic ||86.4 ||85.5 ||84.6 ||79.7 ||82.5 ||84.4 |
|international ||17.5 ||14.5 ||15.4 ||20.3 ||17.5 ||15.6 |
|Total ||18237 ||28685 ||20154 ||23756 ||23894 ||4659 |
|Tete ||Domestic ||88.5 ||88.7 ||84.6 || ||77.1 ||77.6 |
|international ||11.5 ||11.3 ||15.4 || ||22.9 ||22.2 |
|Total ||17804 ||23747 ||15869 ||16672 ||21726 ||5309 |
|Manica ||Domestic ||82.2 ||86.4 ||85.5 ||81.8 ||74.4 ||78.2 |
|international ||17.8 ||13.6 ||14.5 ||18.2 ||25.6 ||21.8 |
|Total ||9148 ||11451 ||8221 ||10213 ||13155 ||2482 |
|Sofala ||Domestic ||64.4 ||62.1 ||65.6 ||67.7 ||75.7 ||80.5 |
|international ||35.6 ||37.9 ||34.5 ||32.3 ||24.3 ||19.5 |
|Total ||20149 ||29088 ||22704 ||26632 ||33686 ||10212 |
|Inhambane ||Domestic ||37 ||37.1 ||33.4 ||36.1 ||36.4 ||38.5 |
|international ||63 ||66.9 ||66.6 ||63.9 ||63.6 ||61.5 |
|Total ||21275 ||34725 ||25730 ||27345 ||23749 ||5371 |
|Gaza ||Domestic ||47.3 ||53.9 ||37.2 ||52.7 ||57.2 ||66.3 |
|international ||52.7 ||46.1 ||62.8 ||47.3 ||47.8 ||33.7 |
|Total ||19077 ||27342 ||23369 ||17832 ||19156 ||3909 |
|Maputo city ||Domestic ||46.2 ||62.4 ||52.3 ||57.2 ||58.3 ||59.4 |
|international ||53.8 ||37.6 ||47.7 ||42.8 ||41.7 ||40.6 |
|Total ||14960 ||16646 ||15398 ||14883 ||17961 ||4505 |
|Maputo province ||Domestic ||35.6 ||35.3 ||31.3 ||34.7 ||37.4 ||39.2 |
|international ||64.4 ||64.7 ||68.7 ||65.3 ||62.6 ||60.8 |
|Total ||154491 ||250234 ||238483 ||287431 ||294698 ||63609 |
Inscription: - Domestic: represents national tourists - International: represents foreign tourists - Year: represents the period of time in years - Total: represents the number of international and domestic tourists The travel behavior of the visitors is an important element for analyzing the strength and weakness for tourism industry in many countries; therefore, it is important to point out why people travel to the referred country (Goeldner, 2000). The fig. 8, shows that according to the reasons for visiting the country, leisure and holidays was the main reason in 2004, 2005 and 2008 with 54, 47.6 and 65.3% of the visitors respectively, and business and conference in 2006 (46.7%) and 2007 (45.5%). The rest of visitors came to visit relatives and friends. Table 6 .International arrivals/ reason for visit
83% of tourist movement is made at the border of Ressano Garcia (South Africa), with 53.2% of Mozambican tourists (caused basically by purchases of the week and lack of information on national tourism) and 32.2% of South Africans tourists. Portugal leads the list of tourists out of Africa who visit Mozambique (3.3%), probably has result of the historical relation with the country (colonist or settler) and South Africa the list within African tourists (32.2%). The proximity with the country's capital, good accesses and transport, and absence of entry fees (visa) are probably the main reasons for this result. The United Nations supports that when tourism focuses in natural environment it can contribute in a positive manner to socio-economic development and environmental protection. Rural or alternative tourism is the tourism which allows travelers to visit areas outside of urban areas. There are multiple forms of alternative tourism since they respond to a variety of different motivations of tourism demanders related with nature, natural resources, culture, history, arts, adventure, sports (USDA, National Agricultural Library). In Mozambique alternative tourism is known basically as ecotourism and is often oriented to natural areas, wildlife, traditional and cultural tourism and is composed by national parks, reserves and game reserves. It has a considerable importance to national tourism since it occupies about 795380 km2 (15.8%) of the national territory and contributes with 34928 job posts, and annual incomes varying from 442681.6 USD to 876486.5 USD from 2005 to 2008. Lockyerï¼ˆ2007), says that the assets (items that hold commercial or exchange value) involved within the hotel industry, human and nonhuman, make management more difficult than many other industries. The challenge to the managers is to control the assets while not restricting the assets to the point that quality service is inhibited. The way the facilities of a hotel are maintained is of vital importance. Lack of maintenance impacts the appearance, efficiency and guest satisfaction and the ability to maintain a property is often closely related to the profitability of the hotel. The hotel industry in Mozambique in order to provide tourist facilities and services; stimulate and regulate the number of visitors and, prevent ruinous competition is trying to offer products according to demand needs with international standards. The prices are fixed according to the international classification of hotels in number of stars (from1 star, for limited services and low prices to 5 stars, to full services and high prices). This classification is probably the most known in the world, however, is not being used by all the countries and focuses on a consumer's perspective on accommodation properties and is based on characteristics such as the room size, the quality of hotel services and the hotel's location. Table 7 .Number of existing beds in local hotels by hotel's category
|Reason (%) ||2004 ||2005 ||2006 ||2007 ||2008 |
|Business and conference ||27.9 ||30.3 ||46.7 ||45.5 ||21.5 |
|Leisure and holidays ||54 ||47.6 ||32.2 ||33.9 ||65.3 |
|Visit relatives and friends ||18.1 ||22.1 ||21.1 ||20.6 ||13.2 |
|Total ||470000 ||578000 ||6643000 ||771000 ||1025554 |
|Category ||2004 ||2005 ||2006 ||2007 ||2008 ||2009 |
|4 and 5 stars hotesl ||2,421 ||2,505 ||2,505 ||2,879 ||2,966 ||2,966 |
|3 stars hotels ||2,715 ||2,810 ||3,125 ||3,197 ||3,207 ||3,281 |
|2 stars hotels ||2,480 ||3,125 ||3,614 ||3,985 ||4,342 ||4,684 |
|others ||6,191 ||6,387 ||6,496 ||6,974 ||6,990 ||7,016 |
|Total ||13,807 ||14,827 ||15,740 ||17,035 ||17,505 ||17,947 |
FONTE: INE/DINATUR Lack of adequate quality of human resources and investments, and weak incentive policies to new investments are considered the main constraints to hospitality development in Mozambique. Mozambique's tourism market development is result of product quality improvement, accommodations and tourism services expansion. The increase in the number of hotels, improvement of the existent hotels and tourist establishments, diversification and improvement of tourist services are used in order to face the competition and offer services and prices which encourage the demand and supply.
7. Conclusions The tourism industry in Mozambique is growing. This growth is result of government's new policies to promote tourism and create facilities to leisure and business tourism and, improvement of existing tourism infrastructures and facilities and, the great businesses opportunities. International tourism is developing faster than domestic tourism. The high costs of tourism services for the local people and their small capacity of investment are the main factors for the slow development of domestic tourism. The tourism development in Mozambique is different depending on the province and type of tourists. Manica, Nacala are the provinces with the slowest tourism development and Maputo city, Inhambane and Sofala are the ones with the fastest tourism development. Tete is the province with the lowest number of international tourists and Maputo city with the highest. The great development on tourism in Maputo province is due to the fact that is the country's capital, has the best tourism infrastructure in the country, concentrates half of the total number of beds in the country, has the best business opportunities and facilities and large range of investment possibilities. Leisure and holidays is the main reason for visiting the country, followed by business and conference and, lastly visit relatives and friends. Portugal leads the list of international tourists out of Africa and South Africa the list within African tourists. Lack of adequate quality of human resources and investments, weak incentive policies to new investments, The necessity of building new and appropriate infrastructures; The high costs and bureaucracy of the entrance visa; The high costs of tourism services for the local people; Lack of information on national tourism; Insufficient promotion and marketing of the country as a touristy destination in national and international levels, are the main constraints to tourism development in Mozambique. Product quality improvement, accommodations and tourism services expansion, increase in the number of hotels, improvement of the existent hotels and tourism establishments, diversification and improvement of tourist services, Businesses opportunities and facilities; Improvement of tourism infrastructures and housing conditions; introduction of government policies in order to improve and create facilities to leisure and business tourism; improvement of transportation and accesses; Participating and organizing tourism fairs that attract more investors and tourists from different parts of the world, are the factors contributing to tourism development.
8. Recommendations In Mozambique there is a great disparity on the number and type of tourists in each province. So it could be important to create guidelines to brand destinations differently, according to specific characteristics of the tourist zones as well as design specific tourism plans. Create new marketing strategies which aim not only international tourists but also domestic tourists and specific policies for domestic tourism development. Domestic tourism is important specially to face adverse conditions such as fluctuations in tourist arrivals, international political and economic crises. These strategies should include travel advertisement for prospective national traveler, competitive prices for domestic travelers involving different regions, activities and lengths of stay. Support market research to identify and profile the tourists and their preferences, which, focus on measurement of domestic and international tourism as well as on ways to improve their access to tourism products. The research should also include practical and effective project appraisal techniques. Create tourism plans with goals for domestic, regional and intercontinental tourism, with special attention to tourism supply, manpower and tourism infrastructure and emphasis on creation of small and medium sized enterprises and providing the necessary practical training and, guarantee the redistribution of the benefits of tourism to the local people through education, health, infrastructure development and community improvements and services used by all the residents. Create incentive programs which stimulate and encourage the use of local architecture design and materials by local and foreign investors, encourage the use of national goods and services through subsidies or loans and quotas or tariffs on the use of imported goods. Invest and support local operators which establish and provide packages with local flavor as well as projects that include staff training. Create policies that stimulate and facilitate participation of the local communities in tourism projects, employment, training food furnishings and crafts and, complementary products. Ecotourism is an area that despite the government efforts, still needs a special attention in terms of marketing activities, brand personality and image communication to the target markets as well as to the local people to increase their involvement in the tourism development process.
8. Bibliographic references Books Beech, John and Chadwick, Simon (eds.); The business of tourism management Buhalis,D. 2000. Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tourism management Cooper et all, 1993, Tourism principles and practice, copyright licensing agency ltd Cooper, C. 1997. The environmental consequences of declining destinations. Progress in tourism and hospitality management. (3)2 Cooper at al. 1998. Tourism principles and practice (2nd ed). Harlow: Pearson edition limited Delfino et al, 2005, Retencion de clients corporativos de uma agency de turismo, Denscombe, M. 1998. The good research guide for small-scale social research projects: Buckihgam: open University press Frechtling c, Douglas; 2001; forecasting tourism demand methods and strategies; British library cataloging in publication data Faulkner et al; 2000; Tourism in the twenty-first century; reflections on experience. Lomdon and New York Jobber, D. 2004. Principles of marketing (4th ed.). Berkshire: McGraw-Hill international limited (UK) Kabia. K. Sunil; 2005; Tourism and the developing country; mohit publications; New Delhi Mahoney, Eduard; Warnell, Gary; tourism marketing; Michigan state university; 1987; ID: E1059. Makan, Dileep; 2006; tourism as an economic enterprise; tourism development in 21st century series, boo-3; New Delhi Pike, S. 2005. Tourism destination branding complexity. Journal of product and brand management. (14)4 Ritchie, J.R.B & Ritchie, R.J.B. 1998. The Branding of tourism destinations: Past achievements and Future challenges. Proceedings of the 1998 annual congress of the international association of scientific experts in tourism, Destination marketing: scopes and limitations Peter Keller edition. Marrakech, Morocco: international association of scientific experts in tourism. Salgado, Manuel; Cravo, Pedro; O turismo ea estatistica; 1999; Beja. Walker, J. R. (2004). Introduction to hospitality management. Pearson Management Internet en. wikibooks.org /wiki /SA - NSC - tourism: glossary. Manila declaration on world tourism; the world tourism conference, 1980. MINTUR (ministry of tourism), 2007. Online.gateshead.gov.uk/ udp / local -/ written/ CPT 28.htm. Online.gateshead.gov.uk/ udp / local -/ written/ CPT 28.htm Tourism Guide Mozambique, 2007, 4th edition Tourist guide Mozambique, 2007. 4th edition. www. Mocambiqueturismo.co.mz (UNEP principles on implementation of sustainable tourism.) www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/policy/principles.htm - 32k World tourism organization committed to tourism; travel and millennium development goals; tourism for introduction and understanding, Cordoba, October 31; 2007 (www.worldtourism.org). www.unctadxi.org/templates/Page____956.aspx www.sidestore.com/ www.un.org/special-rep/ohrlls/ldc/MTR/WorldTourisminput.pdf www.zmelia.co.mz/index.php?option=com_content... - www.portaldogoverno.gov.mz/Informacao/Turism/zonasTur/ www.unctadxi.org/templates/Page____956.aspx (tourism in Mozambique.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia (southern Africa places, travel guide to Mozambique). (southern Africa places, travel guide to Mozambique) (MINTUR, 1999). tourist guide, (2007), Projectos e Investimentos www.mitur.gov.mz/projectos.htm - 17k PromoÃ§Ã£o do Turismo: NecessÃ¡rio 18.3 milhÃµes de dÃ³lares por ano, 26/05/09 www.rm.co.mz/NoticiasArquivo/26Maio/Promocaodoturismonecessarios183milhoesdedolaresporano.ht...