Finance is essential for a business’s operation, development and expansion. Finance is the core limiting factor for most businesses and therefore it is crucial for businesses to manage their financial resources properly. Finance is available to a business from a variety of sources both internal and external.
Funds which are available within the organisation and consist of:
Business borrows personal money of a shareholder, partner or owner for a business’s financial needs. This source of finance is known as personal savings.
Undistributed profits of a company, as not all the profits made by a company are distributed as dividends to its shareholders.
Working capital is the difference of current assets and current liabilities. Working capital helps any business to fulfil its financing for its short term requirements.
Fixed assets can be sold to raise finance in demanding times for the business. Otherwise businesses may choose to stop offering certain products and sell its fixed assets to raise finance. Selling fixed assets reduces the production capacity of a business affecting a business’s return.
External sources of finance are from sources that are outside the business. External sources of finance can either be:
Ownership capital is the money invested in the business by the owners themselves. It can be the capital funding by owners and partners or it can also be share bought by the shareholders of a company. There are mainly two main types of shares. Ordinary shares Preference shares
Known as a unit of investment in a company, have the privilege of receiving a part of company profits via dividends according to the value of shares held and yearly profit of the company.
Preference shareholders receive a fixed rate of dividends before the ordinary shareholders are paid. There are several types of preference shares and company can issue to raise the required capital, provided it is permitted by the By Laws of the company.
Unlike ownership capital, non-ownership capital does not allow the lender to participate in profit-sharing or to influence how the business is run. Different types of non-ownership capital: Debentures Bank overdraft Loan Hire-purchase Lease Grant Venture capital
Debenture holders are not owners but long-term creditors of the company who receive a fixed rate of interest annually whether the company makes a profit or loss.Debentures can be secured, unsecured, fixed or floating.
A short term credit facility provided by banks for its current account holders allowing businesses to withdraw more money than their bank account balances hold. Bank overdraft is the ideal source of finance for short-term cashflow problems.
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