People act in various ways to achieve their goals despite the fact that they may encounter different challenges along the way. As a result it may not be easy to achieve the goals if a person is not capable of identifying the forces or obstacles that hinder him or her from achieving and fulfilling the intended goals. For instance, the sole goal of Odysseus in The Odyssey is to get back home safely immediately after the Trojan War.
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However, he struggles to return home due to the influence from both internal and external forces and thus his family member think that the Greek hero is dead. The external forces of monsters and gods hinder Odysseus from achieving nostos and make a larger impact than internal forces.
Odysseus is compelled to fight in the Trojan War because he is a hero and had promised Helen’s husband that he would protect her honour forever. Making an oath under such terms made it necessary for him to struggle for the victory of the Greek people. Some of the external forces that hinder Odysseus from going back home include gods such as Poseidon, Athena, Circe, Calypso and Helios. Additionally, the monsters of the land prevent him from going back home by making his journey complicated and challenging. Such monsters include Scylla and Charybdis. For instance, Poseidon, the sea god hates Odysseus for the fact that he hurt the god’s creations, the Cyclops. As a result, the god tries to revenge by destroying Odysseus several times but eventually he is not successful. Zeus,
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