This study also pointed out “the importance of health literacy as a critical dimension in devising policies and intervention programs to improve health conditions of immigrant women in Taiwan, and in other host countries. Our study also demonstrates that the health literacy framework contributes a new lens for the examination of immigrant health issues” (Tsai & Lee, 2016. P 73). Interpreting services have been recognized as an important tool to provide safe and effective health care for immigrant populations (Britigan et al., 2009). Studies have provided insights into the importance of professional interpreters to promote effective communication, patient comprehension and satisfaction (Karliner et al., 2007). However, few studies have examined patients’ insights into interpreter services (Karliner et al., 2007).
Health literacy issues of immigrants in non-English-speaking countries have received limited attention. Current research focuses mainly on health literacy matters of immigrant groups in native English-speaking countries, for example Canada, the US, the UK and Australia (Tsai & Lee, 2016). There is a need for research to explore the specific language and communication issues experienced by immigrant populations in countries where the first language is not English (Tsai & Lee, 2016).
Nutbeam claims that although the widely held assumption is that health literacy is ability to understand and use health information, it is really a narrow perspective. He developed a conceptual model of health literacy that comprises three levels: “functional literacy,” “interactive literacy” and “critical literacy” (Nutbeam, 2000). The primary level, functional literacy, is present in everyday settings; at this level, individuals can successfully read and write (Nutbeam, 2000). The second level is interactive literacy, in which people acquire unconventional knowledge and skills and are able to apply both to different life conditions (Nutbeam, 2000). The third and the advanced level is the critical level. At this level, individuals can critically appraise information and have control over situations (Nutbeam, 2000). Nutbeam proposed that health literacy is a powerful tool that individuals can greatly benefit from to control their health (Nutbeam, 2008).
Health Seeking Behaviour (HSB). According to Mahmood, Iqbal, and Hanfil (2009), health-seeking behavior is an action taken by patients when they feel that they need to medical treatment. Jaramillo (1998) writes that health-seeking behaviour is a “multi-dimensional concept” that goes further than biomedical concerns and include cultural, social and organizational factors. Mackian, Bedri and Lovel (2004) found that health-seeking models are critical for designing social interventions aimed at empowering individuals to adopt ‘healthy choices’. Thus, in order to plan and deliver appropriate health care services, it is necessary to understand HSB (Chauhan et al., 2015). Health Care Seeking Behavior (HCSB) refers to a “decision or an action taken by an individual to maintain, attain, or regain good health and to prevent illness” (Chauhan et al., 2015, P 118). HSB is affected by multiple factors such as age, sex, type of illness, and affordability and availability of services (Chauhan et al., 2015).
Chauhan et al. conducted a community-based descriptive study in a rural coastal area in India to evaluate HSB in a rural population (Chauhan et al.,
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