The Creation, Goals and Missions of the United Nations

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Introduction Main purpose of this research is to describe background information of United Nations creation, also to realize its main goals and missions, to examine powers and functions of Main Political Organs as are General Assembly, Security Council, International Court of Justice, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council and The Secretariat with purposes of UN agencies which works about different issues all over the world and plays crucial roles in case of development. Furthermore it’s important to understand the main role of United Nations intervention into the different countries, mostly current missions of organization, such as United Nations Mission in theRepublic of South Sudan and UN’s Stabilization Mission in Haiti, that it give us possibility to realize consequences and results of their actions. After we can judge and make conclusion. Background Information TheUnited Nations established 24 October 1945 in San Francisco by 51 countries, which replaced the ineffectiveLeague of Nations, but today UN consists 193 member andheadquarter is locatedin New York City. The organization was created during theSecond World Warand aim was to prevent another such conflict. Its objectives are: To develop friendly relations among nations, to achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.[1] The organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states and doesn’t have own military forces. In the same year on 26 June was signed The Charter of United Nation, which is main constitutive instrument, which consists rights and obligations to the Member States, and establishes its principal organs and procedures in order to work together for international peace and security to solve international problems. Main Body UN is composed by six main political organs: General Assembly; Security Council; International Court of Justice; Economic and Social Council; Trusteeship Council and Secretariat, accordingly they have own functions. For example the General Assembly of UN which is the main policymaking organ of the UN composed by 193 Member States, that each state has own representatives in to the Assembly with one right of vote. They have authority on such matters as political, economic, humanitarian, social issues, also budgetary questions requires a two-thirds majority of Member States. In case of The Security Council includes fifteen members, but among them five is permanent members_ China,France,Russian Federation,the United Kingdom,the United States with veto powers and ten non-permanent members which is elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term. Under the Charter, the Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It began work in April 1946 and the headquarters is located in Hague. The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected 9 years term by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. The role of court is to settle legal disputes between the States and gives advisory opinions to the UN and its specialized agencies. The Secretariat is an international staff working in duty stations around the world. Its head is secretary general, who is appointed by general assembly by five years term and secretariat carried out problems which deals with UN to mediating international disputes from economic or social trends, also to inform media about the work of UN. Trusteeship Council is made up by five permanent members of security council which are able to administer territories in specific circumstances for a variety of purposes, such as preparation for independence, administration of an election, adoption of a new constitution, implementation of a peace settlement, and performance of other civil functions. Economic and Social Council with 54 members is responsible for the social and economic work of UN, furthermore they have responsibility to make some observation or research for announcement about international economic issues, social relations, cultural, educational and about human rights issues which gives policy recommendations addressed from the member states to the general assembly. Additionally UN has own agencies which works about different issues all over the world and plays crucial roles in case of development, for example: FAO, ILO, IMF, UPU, WHO,WIPO, WTO, IBRD, UNESCO, UNIDO, ITU, ICAO, IFAD, WMO and others. Current Missions United Nations Mission in theRepublic of South Sudan On 9 July 2011 South Sudan became the newest country in the world, but the Security Council recognized that the situation was again threat to international peace and security and for that established the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan to consolidate peace and security and to help establish conditions for development. Political disagreement between South Sudan President Salva Kiir and his former deputy, Riek Machar, started in mid-December 2013 which turned into a full-fledged conflict that caused brutality, more than 1.9 million people have fled their homes, also more than 100,000 became refuge in UN bases. In addition, civilians have been killed, raped and beaten. Now more than 4 million people are under the risk of hunger and diseases. For this reason the Security Council, by itsresolution of 27 May 2014 extend the Mission until 30 November 2014, and authorized it to use “all necessary means” to protect civilians, monitor and investigate human rights, create the conditions for delivery of humanitarian assistance, and support the implementation of the cessation of hostilities agreement[2]. The UN mission in South Sudan plays a vital role in getting food to the thousands of people who have sought shelter in UN bases around the country. United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti was established byUnited Nations Security Council Resolutionon 30 April 2004 because situation in Haiti was threat for international peace and security, but mission is continuing now. In 25 November 2014 – rising tensions Port-au-Prince and other key Haitian cities in the wake of last month’s delayed elections, it caused injure among protestant. Another anti-Government protest on November 18 was resulted in several injuries. "The period from November 25 to December 10 marks the 16 days of activism for the protection of human rights, it is up to all to reject violence in all its forms to move towards a stronger Haiti, more stable and more respectful the rights of all ".[3] Conclusion In the conclusion we can say, that United Nation is doing a lot. They really make the changes for our world society and bring development to us. As we see UN forces are mobilize to eliminate conflicting situation into the South Sudan and are monitoring, observing human rights condition, giving humanitarian aid to the society which plays vital role in getting food to the thousands of people who have sought shelter in UN bases around country. Likewise the United Nations mission in Haiti is very important for the protection of human rights, reject violence and ensure more stable and more respectful society. Furthermore especially UN’s specialized agencies are very successfull, which works about different important issues for improvement economic and social conditions with prosperity in all cases. There is no doubt, that they play crucial roles for future development, despite those facts we must recognize some weaknesses of the organization that sometimes they are facing. For that, they need more reformation and cooperation, which is really difficult in the international society. Bibliography Primary Sources:

Charter of UN, Article 1

Secondary Sources: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/current.shtml http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/news/ http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/ http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/past.shtml http://www.un.org/apps/news/region.asp?Region=3 http://www.haitilibre.com/en/news-11641-haiti-elections-cep-completed-max-mathurin-new-president.html 1
[1] http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter1.shtml 27.12.14/21:22 [2] http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unmiss/mandate.shtml 27.12.14/21:30 [3] http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=49440#.VJ7sJV4DJA 27.12.14/21:50
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