The concept of child abuse can be defined as any action that comes from the person responsible for the child, either by commission or omission, which puts (or can put) at risk the physical, emotional or cognitive integrity of the child. One of the determining aspects that are analyzed to assess the existence or not of this phenomenon comes from the study of the environment in which the child develops. Usually speaking of a maladaptive or harmful environment when various factors occur such as a restructuring at the family level in which they frequently resort to aggressive interactions, low affection, a marginal socio-economic level, a dysfunctional school environment at the psych pedagogical level, a social environment lacking interests, insufficient cultural-urbanistic resources, or presence of a conflictive environment in the neighborhood..
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A definition of child abuse is similar to that described is that of the General Assembly of the United Nations of 1989: “”Child maltreatment is any form of violence, physical or mental harm or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, ill-treatment or exploitation, which occurs while the child is in the custody of their parents, a guardian or any other person who is in charge.
During the first 8 years of a child’s life, many changes occur. In just a few years, he goes from being a helpless baby, dependent on his parents, to becoming a small self-employed with his own interests that has already formed an image of the world. In fact, if we look back we will be amazed at how much it has grown and the huge leap that it has taken at the psychological level.
During the first year of life, the baby grows in sight and goes from being a child who can not stand alone to being a child who launches to discover their environment and actively relates to those around him. In this period his movements are perfected. At 5 months he is already able to pick up small objects with his hand, a movement known as a grasping reflex that represents the anteroom of the gripper grip, which, later on, will allow him to hold the pencil to write and make his first “”abstract drawings”” . Before the first year he will be able to hold his head on his own and crawl, and between 9 and 12 months, sometimes a little later, he will begin to take his first steps (Kleinman, 2015).
During this stage his main means of communication is crying, although around the second month of life he will begin to show what is known as “”social smile””, since until now his smile was a simple reflection.
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