Almost no week goes by when in India innocent lives are not lost to terrorist attacks. The horrific terrorist attack on Mumbai in November 2008 has underscored the nature of the terrorist threat in South Asia. The spread of terrorism in South Asian region has been rampant over the last few decades.
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While India battles with the terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir to insurgency in North East and the Maoist attacks in central India the others in the region are not left untouched. For eg Nepal has seen the spread of Maoists beyond control, Sri Lanka faced the worst kind of insurgency and finally overcame but at a huge cost to human lives, while Pakistan, which encouraged increased fundamentalism and militancy in the tribal areas, is now becoming a target of its homegrown terrorist movements.  The list of heinous terrorist attacks in different countries of the region is endless while the region is turning into the breeding ground for terrorist due to poverty, poor governance and geopolitical tensions which are peculiar to the region. Therefore it is imperative to tackle the problem at the regional level in order to find any lasting solution to the problem. Diverse Categories of Terrorist Groups. South Asia has been a victim of violence perpetrated by a myriad of groups with diverse objectives and varied ideologies, which can be categorized as under  :- Nationalists. These are those motivated by nationalist ideologies. The most prominent of these have been ones focused on the political future of Kashmir in India.  Most of the violence can be attributed to three groups, viz, Hizbul Mujahideen, Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT), and Jaish-e-Mohammad (JEM). Of the three, the latter two, LeT and JEM draw most of their recruits from Pakistan. Religious Extremists  . The main geographical area in which this is prevalent is the Afghan-Pakistan border. Al Qaida which continues to threaten the peace and stability in the world at large is believed conducting its activities through this region. Although the core centre of religious extremism is pointed at Pakistan and Afghanistan by the world community but it spread to other countries like Bangladesh is very much a reality which is proved by a spate of terrorist attack from there. The convergence of religious fundamentalist along with organized crime groups, national or transnational, thus adds additional dimension of complexity to the terrorist threat in the region. Ethno-Nationalist Separatists. Separatist groups are active in every country in the subcontinent. The past struggle between the LTTE and the government of Sri Lanka remains one of the bloodiest insurgencies in South Asia. Separatist movements are also present in Pakistan’s Balochistan and Sindh provinces, India’s Jammu and Kashmir and Northeastern provinces, and Bangladesh’s Chittagong Hill Tracts. Although most of the violence in each of these conflicts is internal,
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