Introduction Within an organization, there lie the techniques, strategies, and processes being implemented by the people. Supposedly, the organization originated in the concept wherein the essential and key people are collected and working together in order to achieve one common goal. Due to the influence of globalization and its two faces: opportunity and challenges, the organization can be plagued with variety of issues. In the attempt of the organization to create a well founded plan for their future success, there are many areas that need to be considered. For over the years, different business analysts and researchers draw an interest in different aspect of organization. Namely organizational structure, organizational changes and challenges, long-term and short-term plans, roles and responsibilities of the people, corporate culture, organizational behavior, and many others. All of the idea comprised within the context of organizational research promotes the difference academic areas such as the psychology in human resource management, accountancy for accounting/audit department, finance management for finance department, etc. In addition, all of the concept drawn within the organization are supported with the theories and is currently applied among the successful organization and be part of their practice. Because of the broad discussion towards the organization, the study is attempting to summarize or, rather, give an overview with the common topics, issues, or ideas, within the organization. The aim to describe the different important areas in organization was generated through the underlying principle regarding the success in businesses - either domestically or foreign, or both business environment.
Question 1 "Irrespective of the size and type of organization, it is essential that strong interrelationships exist between organizational objectives, long term plans and performance measures if the organization is to be successful". As said earlier, the organization is the collection of people bearing with skills, knowledge, and if possible, experience. The invisible bind that holds the people together is through the formulation of certain objectives. Most of the organizational objectives are increasing the profit, quick pace on the return of investment, exploitation of the natural resources and the exploration of other options, development opportunities in the products and services, etc. On the other hand, the machines, materials, investments, and other natural resources are placed under the management and control. The roles and responsibilities of people are also emphasized and it is started through the proper selection of personnel. The increase in the performance of the employees are thereby, supported by proper handling and management. All of the strategies and techniques applied are essential of overall management in an organization. And the management within the organization is implemented in various industries. Most of the organizations are formed by the individuals who are well oriented in the environment of their business as well as acknowledging the characters of the individuals. Moreover, the firms are often founded by the members of family and holding most of the top positions. In order to drive the business towards its success, the management there should be a strong interrelationship in between the organizational objectives, long-term plans and performance measures. The strong relationships within the organization provide conformance and compliance in all the aspect settled inside the departments or even in the entire organization. Relationships or the links can be manifested in the values and ethics; policies, procedures and processes; application of security and controls; fiscal management; risk management; and quality assurance (Barrett, 2002). Because of the strong relationship being built in the organization, there is an establishment of corporate governance that aligns the objectives along with the practices involved. The framework of the relationship pertains to the idea that the long term plans of the organizations can be achieved if there are appropriate performance measures. The connection of the elements towards success should accommodate each other and move towards the operation of the organization. In addition, the enforced interrelationship of management strategies with the organizational performance and performance measures can quicken the pace in reaching the corporate goals or long-term plans (Chan, 2003). It is because; the three concepts open the opportunity ahead, draw the responsibilities, and ensure the accountability and can be the essential ingredient behind the corporate culture. In the emphasis on the performance measures, that usually lies in the human capital and can be the key component towards the success. From the past organizational researches it is often describe as the driver that aligns the objectives and corporate vision. The factors that contribute with this idea are the aspects including the reliability, accuracy, timing, and ability of people to adopt in changes and face challenges. The performance is the most critical part in achieving one certain goal because of the implications of operational efficiency. The performance targets can important to be settled to create the actual performance. The support given by the organizational objectives and long-term plans increases the chances towards success (Henning, Theron, & Spangenberg, 2004). Targets can be also considered as the long-term plan of the organization, and if possible, all of the performance measurements can be crafted meant to satisfy all the organizational goals. One of the most common tasks that an individual should posses is the ability to discover the weakness and then, improve and find the other potentials. The focus of the organization in monitoring the practices towards the performance of the organizations is an effective way to achieve the objectives. Such measures brought out the management are mirrored in their leadership, directing, and controlling. There is an empirical ground of idea that the creation of organizational objectives is the results of the long-term plan and organizational goals. Often, the objectives resembles as the requirement of the organization. And in using the applicable performance, there arrives the management and control. In every department, it is recognizable that the managers have the ability to lead and direct the people, because of the objectives set before them. The acknowledgement of an individual regarding his position in the organization as well as the roles and responsibilities tailing in his position is an effective solution in achieving the goals. When all the performances result according to what is planned and stipulated in the objectives, the quality of work can be generated. In finance management, the assurance that there is a quality on the output of work such as in auditing, then the organization can say that the people complied unto what is indicated in the overall organizational goals. The quality in the performance means that there is an assurance of performance measurement. The essence of effective performance, however, is another indication of performance management. Therefore, the auditing practices in the finance department can adopt and afterwards, increase the level of interest in corporate governance for it has a focus on the accountability and sustaining the practice in work (Barrett, 2002). The situations and the improvement in the systems and operational procedures can deliberately affect the performance measures in the organization. The idea of accountability, in the finance management supports the idea in operating with efficiently and effectively. It could be a basic strategy and be an ideal performance management if the organizational theories can be implemented and delivers a continuous practice. In general, the transformation of the organization towards the success can be a critical point in any organization, especially when the organization has issues and recently involved in organizational turmoil. The interrelationship of the performance measurements in the financial department along with the influence from organizational objectives and motivation coming from the long term plans has the ability to work together such in control and operate is proven to have the impact in delivering the success and continuous growth (Chan, 2003). The strong interrelationships within the organization are affected by the various factors due to the globalization in the business. The increase in the globalization of businesses were triggered by the improvements in transportation and communications, political affairs, technological designs and advancement that might develop and increase the products, and the population of the multinational businesses that are under the same industry. In the trend of globalization, there is an increase in interest in the financial management.
Question 2 Internal and External Stakeholders and the Financial Information they use Organization is an environment where both mind and body synchronized in working. It is fuelled with full of expectations and the access in a good information is believed to be a great foundation in leadership, effective management, and control. The performance measurements being applied in the workplace might be ambitious but because of the target, the entire organization can agree in terms of their focus such as in catering the services and development. The obligation of the information is to ensure that all the decisions that can be generated and can change the position of the organization have a strong basis. For an instance, the audit in finance department presents the capability of the department in providing the assistance because of the effective financial management. In return, the information that the department can provide includes the various opinions, recommendations and opportunities that are made available for all the stakeholders. More than figures, the report are entitled to deliver the adequate and meaningful interpretation, approaches, and judgement towards the information. Stakeholders, who have the right to see the financial report, hence, can craft a sound decision that is clear, unbiased, and transparent (Barrett, 2002).
Stakeholders and the Analysis In evaluating the organizational performance, the stakeholders or the people who can create an influence on the business need a strong basis such as the use of the financial information. Stakeholder's concepts and approaches in the organization can be described as a systematic tool that can define steps and being utilized by the organization. The design of the information enables the stakeholders to evaluate and understand the position of the organization according to the specific activity the organization is engaged and its current environment. Based from the information, there is a creation of a decision that potentially changes the path of the organization including the policies in order to satisfy the organizational objectives. The analysis of the stakeholders is more on the systematic process because it is equipped with the range of methodologies. This includes the analysis on the stakeholders' interests, positions, interrelations, networks, and as well as influence. Generating the knowledge can be the most appropriate description on the role of stakeholders of the organization in which both people and organization understand the behaviour and intentions of the business in the market. Having identified the internal and external stakeholders will help the business to uncover the appropriate changes that should be included in the overall organizational activities. Therefore, it is an advantage for the organization to recognize the stakeholders as well as the perceptions they create towards the organization.
Internal Stakeholders The internal stakeholders are the CEO, managers, and executives who are present in the everyday operation of the organization and thereby, can judge the performance of the organization. In the idea of an efficient and effective operation that is being implemented in the organization, the term accountability can be emerged. The use of the balanced scorecards is an effective way in transforming the organization. A balanced scoreboard is an effective solution in all the managers and executive to track and improve the corporate performance through the use of the key business indicators such as the financial aspect, internal process and operation, customer analysis, and growth of the industry; being offered and then, recorded and be available for their review. The power of the balanced scoreboard creates an impact in visualizing the future success and helping the people in highlighting the essential key areas towards the performance management of the organization (Chan, 2003). In addition, the presentation of the status and trend in the market are good set of indicators which can provide a quick overview on the performance and define the benchmarks. Because of the growing uncertainties in the market, the balanced scoreboards are effective in guiding the organizations on their corporate goals. The method of reporting that were utilized by the executive and managers help them to analyze the operational activities that are needs to improve, maintain, and eliminate. All of the activities involved in decision in the operating activities are ensured to be aligned according to the organizational objectives covering the overall strategy. Aside from the balanced scoreboards, the internal stakeholders can also assess the capital market that is obtained in financial intermediaries and is utilized by most of the large organization which described as the most dominant sources of finances that supports the development aims of the business (Megginson & Boutchkova, 2000).On the other hand, the efficiency market hypothesis (EMH) that is related in the equity of the traders and investors, tells the idea regarding the stocks in the market and dictating the movement that the investors should do to beat the market (Brigham & Gapenski, 1997). Internal stakeholders are rendering the effective performance; therefore, it is a great challenge for the managers to drive the performance towards growth. The CEO and other executives are solely responsible in terms of the authority. And for recent years, the CEO's role in the organization adopted other managerial practice because of the seniority they gained, most especially in the experiences and higher knowledge and skills that they possesses. In accordance to this, the increase in the capacity of the CEO's in serving the organization are almost align with the duties and responsibilities of the Boards of Directors. The facilitation of the organizational ideas are therefore, passed through the creation of organizational goals and enhancing the quality of the performance (Barrett, 2002).
External Stakeholders As a counterpart of the internal stakeholder, the external stakeholders or otherwise called shareholders includes the employees, customers, suppliers, journalists, and the government. All the individuals that are working outside the organization yet being affected by the existence of the organization are called external stakeholders. Meaning, the individuals doesn't need to invest in the organization to carry the "stake" because being a consumer creates a great impact in the success of the organization. The information can be obtained from the disclosure of the performance of the organization such as the financial (interim and annual reports), through viewing the information in comparison with the other related organization, through addressing the behavior of the market as well as the entire stakeholders; sustainability performance report; through the distribution channels, meetings, press conferences, and other channels for communication, Internet, legal Websites. In addition, because of the interest of the entire organization in achieving the trust form the public, the Shareholder Value Analysis became the key objective of the organization to increase the value of the shareholders and this is through recognizing the specific measurements like the economic value. Shareholders can also view this kind of approach and measure the appeal of the organization in the market (White, Vanc, & Stafford, 2008).
Question 3 "The internal financial information an organization provides to its managers for planning, controlling and monitoring purposes is subject to the same accounting concepts and conventions that apply to the published annual reports and accounts". To what extent is the comment true? Illustrate your answer with examples. The responsibilities of the managers can be broad but should include the underlying principles in order to create a significant improvement in the working environment. All of the organizations display the ethical standards and practices which deal from the top-to-bottom of the organization. To manage all of the resources effectively and efficiently and with the accordance of the organizational objectives, the managers should recognize the importance of the governance. Through the use of the financial information, the managers can determine the level of the business relationships among its suppliers, distributors, and other partners. It is so true that the accounting concepts and principles can give the comprehensive review on the financial position of the organization. And with that, the managers can create sound decisions. However, the internal financial information deals with an in-depth analysis, not more on figures and discuss the related information from the range of products, services, and operational activities. In such the internal financial information provides the transparency in all the areas of organization. In this sense, there is an increase in the financial returns because being transparent in reporting, unbiased, and avoiding the manipulation resembles the ability of the entire organization to create the competitive advantage and protection on company assets. Generally, the financial reports are fashioned in favor of the organization which may leave some blind spots in the overall sustainability of the organization. Some of the organization is reluctant to provide the internal financial report because of the unfavorable indicators regarding the organization. In contrast to this, the internal financial information is bound to reveal everything - whether good or bad. The hint that the organization might be engaged in a wrong path is the incomplete disclosure of information and it might indicate the poor performance of the organizational activities. The essence of disclosing all of the information is a result of the sustainable performance of the organization (Bedard & Jackson, 2003). The essence of disclosing the information is to prove that there is an improvement in the organization regarding the application of the strategies and systems. In fact, the influence of the growing uncertainties in the market and business environment should be also examined and be included in the comprehensive report. This is for the reason that the regulatory requirements in the society create a great impact in the organization, most especially in foreign countries. Internal financial information can be the internal audit. Internal financial information can be only assess through the application of the internal auditing which the financial management can describe as an independent area, objective, and assures that the design of the consultation is for the organization and its related operation. With the strong founded practice and auditing activity, the financial reporting can be evaluated according to the organizational objectives because of the systematic and disciplined approach. The audit also includes the essence of risk management, control, and corporate governance in the overall process. Financial manager is the one who is responsible in the establishment and maintenance of the practice in the internal controls of the organization. The continuous process of the internal auditing is focused on the exposing the risk areas that are under the operation, financial and operational information, safeguarding the organizational assets, assurance on the compliance with the laws and regulations, and directing the organization towards the accomplishment of the goals and associated objectives. Financial managers can work along with the internal auditors because most of the internal investigations will be taken from the accounts of the financial managers and the accountants, since they are the people who are responsible in handling the financial issues in the organization. It is recommended that there should be improvements in the internal controls from the top of the management to maintain the integrity in the corporate world while at the same time, targeting the operational improvement (Quality Assurance Bureau, 2007). As a contrast to the internal controls, the weak implementation of the financial management and control only invites the opportunity in committing fraud. The fraudulent act is the most negative action that may arise among the individuals. In the essence of corporate governance, the signs and overall existence of the frauds can be minimized until eliminated. It is not important that a policy in being established, what necessary is to act according to the settled policy, have an effective leadership, and provide appropriate commitment. In terms of the adoption of sound management and stringent control in the financial aspects, there will be a clear intention in promoting the corporate governance and facilitation of the processes and procedures according to the organizational goals and objectives. Effective implementation of control reflects in the management's attitude and commitment in ensuring that the business will receive the interests and there exist the term accountability (Barrett, 2002). The utilization of the internal financial information emphasizes, explores, and strengthens the financial manager's responsibilities within the organization. To use the funds according to the objectives of the organization and the related plans remains the heart of the financial manager's task. In accordance to this, the financial manager has five specific activities that are part of the maximization of the value of the firm. First is the forecasting and planning, and with the use of the internal financial information there is an accuracy in performing this task. Second is to manage and facilitate the major investment and financing decisions, such as determining the optimal sales that can be achieved in the invested project. Third is to coordinate and control through interacting with the people within the organization like the executives to ensure that the plans are followed accordingly. Fourth is to deal with the financial markets or the capital markets to ensure that there are enough funds to support the on-going project. And fifth is to assess and manage the risks. All businesses has their risks depending on the type of environment that they are involved but it is important that the business can play safe even if there is a threat coming from different elements (Brigham & Gapenski, (1997).
Question 4 "Each of the four main methods of investment appraisal (Accounting Rate of Return, Payback, Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return) is as relevant and appropriate as the others when making investment decisions". Discuss and critically evaluate this statement, illustrating your answer with some numerical examples. As part of the finance manager's roles and responsibilities, there is a coordination and continuous communication with the other personnel in the organization like the marketing manager who would help in project sales, the engineering and production staffs that would determine the assets necessary to meet the demands in the market. Aside from simply raising the funds to satisfy the projects, they are generally has the direct responsibility for the elements involved through the application of the control process. Financial managers make decisions regarding which assets that the firm should acquire; how the assets should be financed, and how the firm should manage the existing resources. If these responsibilities are performed optimally, the importance of financial managers will arise because of the recognition in maximizing the values of the firms and supporting the long-term plan of the organization while keeping the consumers and employees. However, in the start of the project, the knowledge and skills of the finance manager is expected to show through measuring and projecting the capacity of each projects in delivering the favorable interest for the organization. The basic investment appraisal techniques that every financial manager should be aware of are the computation of the Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Payback Period (PP), and the Accounting Rate of Return (ARR). In the application of theses methods, the decision can be made because of the strong ground of basis. However, there are rules that need to determine in order to use the chose of method. The type of decisions may also varied but there are only two options available - accept or reject - the project. When the finance manager is bound to deliver a comprehensive answer regarding the project, he must be aware on the conditions towards its ongoing completions. If there are long-term projects, one must look on the consistency of the corporate plan. The essence is that, all the funds will be wasted if there is a sudden change in the organization whether in structure, leadership, plans, and goals - all will be affected in the changes. A financial manager must consider the cash inflows in the project. All of the funds should exceed on the estimated outflows or expenses and create an appropriate technique in capital budgeting. This will emphasize the true ability of the finance manager in forecasting. Below is the example that can mirror the ability of the finance manager in creating a sound decision between the two projects. The situation is that, the manager should make a choice between the projects with the given assumption of 15% annual cost of capital and estimated net annual cash flows (University of London External System).
Project Time Periods (Years)
A (25, 000) 5, 000 12, 500 12, 500 12, 500 $17, 500
B (10, 000) 5, 000 10, 000 (1, 000)
- $4, 000 Next are the four methods in investment appraisal according to their set of rules.
(Years) ARR (%)
A $4, 166* 22 2.6 35*
B $1, 251 24* 1.5* 26.7 The projects A and B will have an NPV of 4166 and 1251 respectively. According to the decision rule of NPV, the finance manager should select the investment gaining the higher NPV regardless of the size of the original investment. In this case, the Project A is the preferred option (University of London External System). The rationale for the method NPV is described to be straightforward which is why NPV is the most utilized method in the financial management and give signals to the management regarding the decision. An NPV of zero signifies that the project's cash flows are exactly sufficient to repay the invested capital and to provide the required rate of return on that capital. If a project has a positive NPV, then its cash flows are generating more than the required return, and since the return is fixed, the extra return accrues solely to the firm's stakeholders (Brigham, & Gapenski, 1997). This suggests that B is a good project because there is a shorter payback period. Payback period is the expected number of years in which the investment can recover the original investment. This is also considered as the first formal method in evaluating the capital budgeting projects. The concept that lies in this method is the idea of "the shorter the payback, the better" (Brigham & Gapenski, 1997). In ARR approach, the Project A is the preferred project because of the higher rate. Meanwhile the IRR chose the project B. Since all of the results are in contrasts in each other, the NPV is once again emphasized. In the practicality, the finance managers are advised to master the capital budgeting process and provide the post audit procedure and compare with the actual results with the predictions for the chosen project. In addition, there is a great chance that there are discoveries on certain areas that needs to be improved such as the operations (University of London External System). Again, in the process of capital budgeting, most of the finance managers are in favor of NPV because it has a direct relationship with the Economic Value Added (EVA). It means that, when the project during the year indicated a positive NPV then over time its cumulative EVA should rise to the by the sum of the projects' NPVs. Things will never work out this way because investors cannot determine the expected NPVs all of the firm's projects. Still, over time positive NPVs should translate into positive EVAs, and to a positive market value added (MVA), or the access of the firm's market value over its book value. The reward system that compensates the managers for producing positive EVA will lead to the use of NPV for making capital budgeting decisions (Brigham & Gapenski, 1997).
Conclusion Eventually, both internal and external stakeholders must have the information that they need to make better decisions and the information should be in quality, reliable, relevant, and credible.