Review of literature
This literature review looks at how teachers develop pupils through physical education using quality standards and which teaching styles are required? This review of literature will look at how the quality standards of teaching and support within PE can help pupils develop their talents. Teachers are required to develop pupils through using the quality standards of teaching as recommended by the government. Talent development within schools has been looked at in greater detail by the department of education and skills (DFES) in (2001) and (2002) and the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) (2003). The provision of schemes such as the PESSCL strategy and enrichment schemes can see if these help pupils develop within schools. The different types of teacher styles can also be an important factor to each individual's talent development.
What is talent?
'Talent matters' describes talented pupils who demonstrate high-level ability within a range of PE contexts, or have the potential to do so. www.talentmatters.org
(Gagne 2000, p. 67) believes talent is, 'the superior mastery of systematically developed abilities (called competencies or talent) and knowledge in at least one field of human activity to a degree that places a child's achievement within at least the upper 10% of age peers who are actively in that field or fields' Trackle et Cushion (2006, p. 267). Freeman (1998) goes on to mention that 'in defining Gifted and Talented pupils as 'those who either demonstrate exceptionally high level performanceâ€¦ or those whose potential for excellence has not yet been recognized' Bailey et al, (2004 pp134). Every school has talented pupils these pupils once identified, require high quality teaching and support to help them fully realize their talents www.talentmatters.org
. Within schools, teachers are the people responsible for developing talented pupils of which whom demonstrate high level ability within physical education. High quality talent development is characterized by identification and selection, teaching and supporting, professional development and policy www.talentmatters.org. This was considered an interest by the government as they believed that children that had great ability within physical education could be developed into sports players that may well compete at the highest level. The Department for Education and Skills (DFES, 2001) mentioned that the identification and development of children in schools is the foundation for future elite performance and international success (DCMS, 2000; Kirk & Gorely, 2000). Bailey, Tan, Morley, (2004) also believe that the governments huge emphasis on the identification and development of talented pupils within schools will improve a pupil's performance as well as giving them the best opportunity to perhaps progress through to the elite level after their school education is complete. Office for Standards in Education, 2001 (OfSTED 2001) mentions that achievement criterion within schools should not just work with high ability children who are achieving through physical performance but those pupils who have the potential and make every effort to achieve. Freeman et al.,
(1998 pp137), mentions 'they should take a broader perspective, encompassing the potential to excel'. Talent matters also mentioned that schools should recognize pupils who are currently achieving, underachieving or have the potential to achieve a high level ability. The problem also found here with talented pupils or pupils that may have the potential to excel is that the school can only identify a limited number of pupils who have talent. Bailey et al (2004). Bailey et al (2004), mentions that the flexible provision for gifted and talented pupils is limited to one third per year group which gives less opportunity for all pupils to develop. This is probably due to teachers not having the time to help every child progress and develop which affects pupils that have potential but won't be identified purely because of the time for identification to be observed. (Office for Standards in Education, 2001) can only identify approximately the same proportion of gifted and talented pupils each time within each year group although there could be a year group with more gifted children that cannot be identified by schools due to the proportion. Bailey et al (2004). This is why the government has tried to set a framework on the provision of school-based mainstream curricular identification and provision strategies which should develop talented pupils. Fisher, (1996); Beashel, (2002), found it unfortunate that evidence is showing a proportion of pupils excluded from activities, because not being given the opportunity or support to develop their selves which is why these new strategies and schemes should be put in place within schools to prevent any talented pupils being excluded. Government plans for provision of school-based mainstream curricular identification and provision strategies are put in place within schools so it can help teachers identify this talent and develop them to the elite level as mentioned by Kirk et al, (2000). Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) mention that schools systems and teachers need to consider the best way of identifying talent, which could be through assessing a pupil's ability which can help keep tracks of their progress www.qca.org.uk
. The quality standards is a measure of high quality practice in the identification, selection, teaching and support of talented pupils, as well as the professional development of teachers involved and associated school policy. A model was produced by the 'talent matters' which showed abilities that were needed, to develop talent and how quality standards of identification and teacher support could produce the best outcomes for pupils within physical education. Looking at appendix 1 shows the model of talent development, and if quality standards are met then it would help produce,
- Lifelong physical activity
www.talentmatters.org Research has shown that PE and school sport focuses its time on regular and frequent practice, therefore the activity should motivate everyone within the group to take part which will help top level performers progress quicker. www.qca.org.uk
When talent has been identified it is important to give the pupils with talent the best support and high quality of teaching to fully develop their talents. www.talentmatters.org. High quality talent development is needed to be taken seriously as it can enhance an individual's learning, and achieve the outcomes bulleted above, but this can only be helped if the support and guidance is there from their teachers. It was found that pupils who are highly motivated to achieve and have excellent knowledge of activities but not the most skilful within performance, do gradually develop if the teacher has an open approach and gives the same support through a 'positive impact on the learning of all pupils' as mentioned by www.talentmatters.org
. Although it was found by (Hellison & Templin, 1991; Bailey, 2002) that some pupils with great knowledge and understanding of PE were excluded as their talent doesn't shine through physical performance, which is not recognized by some teachers as talent (Hellison & Templin, 1991; Bailey, 2002). This shows why there aren't enough talented pupils as opportunity isn't available to all. Gifted and talented pupils need to be acknowledged for the different abilities they have and that specific development programmes should exist to suit their educational needs. Bailey et al (2006). (Doll-Tepper & Scoretz, 2001), mention, 'Physical education can contribute to a wide range of recreational and career outcomes, and among the most important of these, we suggest, is lifelong physical activity' Bailey et al (2006, p.215). The government invented the schemes below which offer the range of quality teaching, coaching and learning for talented pupils in order to raise their attainment, aspirations, motivation and self-esteem. High quality teaching and support involves positive working relationships between relevant internal and external groups www.talentmatters.org.
A programme called Physical Education School Sport Club links (PESSCL) strategy was introduced to include all children in more sporting activities within school and out of school activities. This scheme was supported by Â£459 million by the central government and was set up to ensure all pupils have the opportunity to participate in physical activity in and outside of school www.llrsport.co.uk
. The main aim of the governments PESSCL strategy, 'enhance the take-up of sporting opportunities by five-to-sixteen-year-olds by increasing the percentage of school children who spend a minimum of two hours each week on high quality PE and school sport within and beyond the curriculum from 25% in 2002 to 75% in 2006 and 85% by 2008' www.llrsport.co.uk. PESSCL has seen a higher percentage of children are getting involved with PE and sport as better support and opportunity is available, and more talented pupils able to develop through high quality PE and sport at school. A 2004/2005 school sports survey across most of England has shown that pupils have been spending at least two hours of time within high quality physical education lessons. This survey also mentions, 'the number of pupils identified as gifted and talented and receiving extra coaching in PE and sport has more than doubled to 106,100 from 44,400 last year'www.llrsport.co.uk. The school sport survey showed the amount of children taking part in two hours of high quality PE was achieved a year early, which the new aim of the government is 'for each child to have access to five hours a week by 2012' www.youthsporttrust.org
. This will have a great affect on children and should hopefully help teachers develop talented pupils through high quality teaching as there are extra hours of activity to look at more pupils. Montgomery, (2002), also found that sports based programmes often ignored pupils who are potentially talented, and are underachieving as a lack of opportunity and support isn't given which is why this extra curriculum sport will help develop talented pupils. The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) mention that supporting talented pupils by giving opportunities can help develop their ability. The QCA mention that pupils should have the opportunity to practice, and their performance should be in context which considers their age, ability and size. www.qca.org.uk
. Schools were found to have an inadequacy of existing educational procedures and provisions in which the UK government made sure that the schools were identifying and developing gifted and talented pupils as part of an Excellence in Cities (EiC) scheme (DFEE, 2000). Bailey et al, (2004). the excellence in Cities Scheme (EIC) this was introduced in march 1999 and had a strategy to raise education standards promoting education and partnership and disseminating good practice to the wide education community. Bailey et al (2004). The EIC scheme works closely with DFES and want to develop the quality of PE and sport Provision to ensure that pupils get the best opportunity to develop. Through the use of inclusion the government mentions that the needs of very able pupils are truly inclusive and can cater for the abilities within the whole group Bailey et al (2004 p. 135). Another way in which development of talented children can be helped is through enrichment programmes. This is common to provision and includes out of school opportunities. Enrichment can develop a child's knowledge within a subject area, and in different environments and situations. There is also opportunity for the talented pupils to be worked with by sports coaches in after school clubs Bailey et al (2006). The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) mention the enrichment process and how knowledge can help a child develop within an activity at their pace of learning providing there is good support by a teacher. 'Broadening the range of pupil's knowledge and experience by providing different types of activity from within the same area of activity. For example, in gymnastic activities, talented pupils could use apparatus for rhythmic gymnastics rather than traditional apparatus; pupils learning basketball and netball could be given opportunities to use their knowledge and skills in handball'www.qca.org.uk. These activities require the teacher to use certain teacher styles to develop each pupil towards working at tasks at their own ability level. This is supported by Bailey et al (2006), who mentions that if teachers identify the right skills by supporting children through activities and having a focus on specific abilities so that each individual student gets assessed at their own level Bailey et al (2006 p.217). Teachers can support and develop each pupil's ability through using appropriate teaching styles which is suitable to the lesson being taught. This enables each child to get the best learning and quality of teaching which is linked with Mosstons theory of teaching styles. Mosstons theory is how different teachers use their own personal preference to installing learning towards their pupils. Mosstons theory was originated in 1966 and was a detailed analysis of teaching styles and behaviours amongst teachers and student interactions www.sports-media.org
. 'The spectrum established a framework of possible options in the relationship between teacher and learner (Mosston & Ashworth, 1986) and was based on the central importance of decision making 'www.sports-media.org. The spectrum teaching styles was broken down into three areas;
- Pre impact, which teachers would need to consider preparation, learning objectives, organization and presentation before the practice commenced.
- Impact, which teachers would have to make decisions relating to the performance and execution of the activity.
- Post impact, which includes evaluation of performance and feedback to learner from teacher www.sports-media.org.
The spectrum has ten styles of teaching where a teacher may be completely direct towards a lesson or where he/she can allow the student to have a role where more responsibility is needed to make decisions with the teacher just overlooking the lesson to make sure it is safe and to provide any feedback www.sports-media.org. The ten teaching styles are;
- Command- teacher makes all decisions
- Practice- students carry out teacher-prescribed tasks
- Reciprocal- students work in pairs; one performs, the other provides feedback.
- Self check- students assess their own performance against criteria
- Inclusion- teacher planned. Student monitor own work
- Guided discovery students solve teacher set movement problems.
- Divergent- students solve problems without assistance from the teacher.
- Individual- teacher determines content. Student plans the programme.
- Learner initiated- student plans own programme. Teacher is advisor.
- Self teaching- student takes full responsibility for the learning process.
www.sports-media.org Teachers are responsible for identifying the talented children and using the best programme to suit their needs of learning and developing their abilities. Eyre, (1997) clarifies this as, 'a two-stage process in which talented students are recognized by teachers, after a programme of teaching or support is initiated' Bailey et al (2006, p.216), in which these different types of teaching styles can help a child develop depending on what ability they are currently at. This is known as structured learning, which is either informal (that is, self-taught) or formal learning (such as taught within schools by a practitioner). Bailey et al (2006). Without any type of structured learning children will not benefit from an activities or have the opportunity to improve their ability. The more talented or higher ability pupil may require a programme to suit their own development where individual practice and provision to guidance of learning may be quicker for them to develop.
'Conceptually, practice could be subsumed under the provision label, as it relates to informal or formal learning, but its vital importance for the development of talent is such that we suggest it warrants discrete consideration' Bailey et al (2006 p.216). These all offer different options for a teacher to use depending on what accommodates the children's needs and best ways of them developing through learning. It could also depend on which lesson was being taught as to which style of teaching would need to be used.