Summary of Research Article
Summary of Granta article
The news of Russian Prime minister Vladimir Putin giving out information about the absence of his soldiers in Ukraine introduces this article. Although the Russian soldiers were openly seen in Russia, the Prime Minister denials the truth honestly. Also, Donald Trump, current president of United States testifies to the Muslim community to have cheered the booming of twin towers and also adds that Mexican government had planned to have bad immigrate to the US. The analysis of all this vital information from great and high profiled leaders in the world proves that ""truth"" or the fact has no value in a free environment. Both politician and media have given out the message that is unreliable since having no fact of truth since they don't care whether their message is of truth or not.
Then the author wonders how comes the world has reached his state whether anybody can give and testify a lie. He further wonders whether technology or history of philosophy or economic globalization are risible for this state. Whereby media and politician can cheat without fear. Technology is highly blamed for this mess. Through social Medias such as Facebook and Google people have been posting information that has no basis in fact or truth. The politician has been using social media such as Twitter to make themselves proud and has made as they create a nostalgic environment for their followers. As the American philologist Svetlana Boym claims that politician use non-fact information to make they're follows feel irrational suspiciousness and hence cannot trust other leaders. Leaders from a different part of the world are seen using propaganda which is have not fact.
Throughout this article, Trump's propaganda and much of his information that is considered as to have no fact base but just post truth or truth that maybe will come in future are illustrated. For instance, for Trump to achieve his mission of causing American to stop trusting on former president Obama, he associates Obama with Muslim. This is because Muslim community is taken to have enmity with Americans after Asama bombed twin towers. It is believed that the truth and falsehood have established itself at almost equal levels and hence taking advantage of post-modernism as a result of technology. The article further discovers that the postmodernism made a mistake by assuming that all knowledge is power and hence it is not possible to debate against power.
This article concludes that it is a dark joy for one to open to the world all his madness. This uses Trump as a good example of a leader in power who expresses his emotion and ager in media with the pressure of validating any propaganda or shit he has. And hence nobody can expect fact information considering the current state of politician and media information/ messages.
Summary of the research reports on making up history: False Memories of fake news stories
Based on previous research that had been carried out on the field of the truthiness of information, the past results found that repeated information was more likely to be taken as true information if it had not been heard before. Researchers from Washington University have performed this experience on false memories of fake news stories. This research is carried out with the aim of examining whether familiarity with stories that are false increases the rate of truthfulness for such events. It also focuses on establishing whether familiar false stories create a false memory.
Methods used in this experiment involved 44 undergraduate students of psychology who were used as the experimental material for this research. Participants were divided into two groups, one group was not exposed new stories, but the other group of participants in this research was exposed to false new stories, but the investigators tried as much as possible to portray this information as true stories to the participants. This was aimed to achieve the goal of this research that focused on establishing the influence of memory on the exposure of false information. This was to be achieved through exposing part of research material (undergraduate students of psychology) to false stories while sparing the other group to establish any variation in the response between these two groups. After five weeks, the participant was required to rated various stories. Results found that the group of the participant that had been exposed to false experimental stories rated them as more plausible and truthful than the group that had not been exposed to false experimental stories.
From this research, it was found that false information is repeated in one's memory, the higher the belief on the false information was taken to be true. Also, found that the more the experimental group had been exposed to false information the more they were confusing it with other information from outside the research. Hence giving out a proof that people are likely to confuse a false information or stories with what they had heard before and hence make the wrong conclusion.
Summary of Forbes Article On: 10 Journalism Brands Where You Find Real Facts Rather Than Alternative Facts
This is an article on the opinion expressed by Forbes contributors, by Paul Gladder, the author. It comprises many opinions on accessing information that is true and of equal facts without any alteration of the reality of the occurrence. Contributors are wondering whether it is possible to access real truth in this era of fake news from the internet and also new political leaders that are stressing on their baseless fact that have no any element of truth. It is clear that many people are confused by the current state of the validity of factualness of the communicated information. This has made many people start reading past books and novels such as dystopian novel of 1984 as BBC reports that its sales are increasing. It seems as if people do not trust reading currents documents or information since much of has no factual base. Subscription to some of trusted magazines and newspapers are rising. Even the academic class is wondering whether the reading habits are only reading people towards fiction and truth.
Nobody has the information on devices that can give trusted information in our today's media. Then contributors' o Forbes wonders why journalists cannot organize themselves according to their professional code of ethics as a journalist. There is a confusion on the point of what ought to be done to the editors who allow information that is full of an exaggeration to be channeled to the public, be fired or get a new position in the same job field. The trusted information shows that there are some media such as BBC and NBC whereby if his journalist violets the professional code of ethics is fired. This article concludes up outlining some of the trusted media sources that can be relied upon for the acquisition of true information. For instance, the New York Times, the wall street journal among other trusted media sources.
Youtube (the third link just send me to YouTube with no feeds)
YouTube is a video exchange platform. A lot of information is posited on you tube both educational, informal and non-informal. The authenticity of this information may be not be proved since anybody can post or upload a document on YouTube. Thus there is a mixture of trusted and trusted information that can be accessed from YouTube. For instance, through YouTube, one can watch a trusted TV channel and hence get access to trusted information. At the same account, one may upload edited official video such as the official inauguration of a leader that has been edited for a specific purpose.