Stem cells – The Gods of All Cells

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Abstract

Stem cells are literally the gods of all cells. They have the potential to develop into so many different types of cells within the body. For many untreatable neurodegenerative disorders, stem cell research offers great promise and hope for a cure to these progressive diseases.

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Here we discuss what a stem cell is and the basic functions, how it can be used to help alleviate one of the largest symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, and research of stem cells on neurological disorders and how stem cell development correlating with Alzheimer’s can create new experiments for clinical research. The human brain is prone to neurodegeneration and is unable to counteract the neuronal loss by regenerating lost cells. Patients with neurodegenerative conditions progressively lose neurons yet have an absence in the appropriate plasticity response that would replace the lost ones (Tincer, Mashkaryan, Bhattarai & Kizil, 2016). Regeneration or neuroreplacement in neurodegenerative diseases may seem like an unattainable goal, however, when you look at model organisms, they may hold potential for advancement in cellular therapies and replacement treatments. Intro: What is a Stem Cell? Stem cell are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They are a repair system and are different from other cells in the body in a few different ways.

The main being that stem cells can divide and renew themselves over a long period of time and are unspecialized; because of this stem cells have the potential to become specialized cells that go on to perform specific functions within the body. Stem cells which divided under the right conditions go on to form more and more daughter cells, some of which become more stem cells while others become specialized cells. Some examples of these specialized cells are heart cells, muscle cells, blood cells, and brain cells. In the past regular connective tissue has been taken by researchers and reprogram to become functional heart cells. In one study, animals with heart failure that were inoculated with new heart cells experienced enhanced heart function and an increase in their survival time (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Stem cells are noted as being one of the body’s raw materials (Mayo Clinic, 2018) meaning all other cells with a specialized function are generated from them. That being said, stem cells can literally transform into any specialized cell under the right conditions in the body or laboratory setting. Stem cells can be guided into becoming specific cells that can be used to regenerate and repair diseased or damaged tissue within the body (Mayo Clinic, 2018).

For various untreatable neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) (the current-approved drugs provide only symptomatic relief) (Bali, Lahiri, Banik, Nehru,

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