Throughout the 1900’s, communism took the world by storm as it spread through Europe and Asia. Karl Marx wrote about the widespread ideology in his greatest work of writing, The Communist Manifesto(1848), and declared that all property in society should be equally owned, and payment would be dealt according to his or her abilities and needs. And so, after the majority of WWI had elapsed, the communistic cancer began spreading throughout the nations of Europe, beginning with the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, which established the Soviet Union as the primary power of Russia after the destruction of the Tsarist autocracy.
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Thereafter, the Soviet Union would begin spreading communism throughout the nonaligned nations of Europe following WWII, ultimately leading to the spread of communism in Asia, and more specifically, China, North Korea, and Vietnam. Decades later, the Cold War was an urgent matter, and presidents serving throughout the Cold War such as Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy(1961-1963)would establish programs and acts that would, in hopes, repel the outbreak of communism. However, with the Soviet Union gaining traction in the race to supremacy as a global power, the presidential efforts would not be enough.
Beginning in 1945, following WWII, the era of Long Peace—an era of long lasting peace between the Soviet Union and the United States(1945-1991)—commenced, but the Soviet Union, along with the United States, began to bolster and progress in their technology concerning nuclear warfare. The uptick in military production would be used for national defense and power, in response to the first successful detonation of an atomic bomb in Alamogordo, New Mexico, along with the U.S. nuclear detonation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Similarly, In an effort to surpass the brilliant technological aerospace advances of the Soviet Union during the Space Race in the 1950’s, the United States Congress along with Dwight D. Eisenhower—president at the time(1953-1961)—established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on July 29, 1958. The Cold War brought about nuclear dangers that could have destroyed Russia and America respectively through Mutual Assured Destruction; however, the early years of NASA and the Soviet Union’s aeronautic efforts eclipsed the worrisome tensions of the Cold War, shifting national attention to major technological developments and goals during the Space Race.
To begin, on July 1, 1957, the United States and Russia declared that they would launch satellites in to the Earth’s orbit during the Cold War to study the earth as part of the International Geophysical Year(IGY). The purpose of the IGY can be perfectly illustrated in a National Academy Of Sciences IGY Program report: “To observe geophysical phenomena and to secure data from all parts of the world”. In response to the challenge, the Soviet Union was first to complete the task, as it launched the Sputnik on October 4,
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