Social Work Profession
Social work profession is vitally important towards improving the well-being of children and parents when individuals lack the skills in coping or providing daily life necessities. The National Association of Social Work (NASW) provides the social worker professionals with knowledge on professionalism, values, and code of ethics accountability. Additionally, every social worker must be equipped with knowledge on theoretical perspectives on human behavior. Theory and social work practice interplay with one another. These are essential fundamental skills for case assessment, explanation, intervention, and evaluation. There are many different arrays of multidisciplinary theories. For example, theories borrowed from psychology, biology, sociology and economic can apply relevant theory practice. Theories assists to predict and/or explain situations and behaviors patterns for a particular event and resolve relevant problems. This essay will compare and contrast between resilience and psychosocial theory, its strengths and limitations relating to anxiety, depression and PTSD when minor children are separated from parents. Background on Social Work apply theories The knowledge of theory is integral to the social work professional in order to assist individual coping with different stressors that minor children experience with mental disorders leading to PTSD. Theories are part of an important ingredient in the social workers profession. Multidisciplinary theory assists social workers to: (1) explain or predict an individual's patterned behavior depending on the situation (2) provide a starting direction (3) assist in the assessment phase in organizing and planning (4) provide social work accountability (5) apply theory findings based on individual's capacities.
Defining Resilience Theory
One of many theories social workers utilize is Resilience theory. According to the American Psychological Association (APA) resilience is define as the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress ” such as family and relationship problems, serious health problems or workplace and financial stressors. Additionally, according to European Journal of Psychotraumantology, These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity (2014). In layman language it means the ability to "bouncing back" from difficult experiences (2018). Defining Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson, who was an ego psychologist, believed a life span consisted of different growth stages, developed psychosocial theory. Erikson developed a series of eight life stages beginning from birth through old age. Every stage of the lifespan affects the development of an individual, for example:
- Stage 1: The Infancy stage consist of birth through one year old. Where the infant develops trust versus mistrust. Is the infant's surrounding a safe place or danger alerts everywhere?
- Stage 2 Early Childhood consist of eighteen months and three-year-old in this stage child begin develops autonomy versus shame and doubt. The child begins discovering independence and learns many skills and abilities.
- Stage 3 consists of preschool years ages __________that develop initiative versus guilt. Attitudes arise reflecting either good or bad behaviors and action must take. Additionally, play activities, pretend, criticize or control others, become followers.
- Stage 4 are school age years________ the industry versus inferiority. Where they begin to learn sight words and begin reading and writing. The feel achieved and accomplished.
- Stage 5 age________is the adolescence where children developed identity versus role confusion. Children becoming independent begin to set goals and future interests and dislikes.
- Stage 6 age___________Young Adulthood, which develops intimacy versus isolation concerns. Young adults begin to distance from parents and begin forming closer relationship with the opposite sex.
- Stage 7 Middle Adulthood develops “ generativity vs. stagnation
- (Stage 8) Maturity develops - ego integrity vs. despair. (Hutchinson, 2017, p. 358). Any interference during a part development life span can potential affect an individual's well-being.
Cherry expanded on Erickson by stating Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt. Erikson believed that achieving a balance between autonomy and shame and doubt would lead to will, which is the belief that children can act with intention, within reason and limits. (2018)
Cause of Emotional Distress
At some point, most people will be expose to one (or more) potentially life-threatening traumatic experiences that can influence mental health and result in conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Karam et al., 2014). There are numerous adversities that include exposure violence, the trauma of war, drug gang wars, witness death of a loved one, and terrorism. Some stressors exposure may be reoccurring. For example, bullying, stressors in the work place, unhealthy relationships, poverty, areas where hurricanes or tornados are seasonal occurrence. Exposure to chronic, intense, unforeseen or overwhelming stressors can be physically or emotional detrimental to the body. Researches have followed people with the same typical adversities yet, the researcher asked, What are the natural mechanisms that allow most people to cope successfully with adversity? What are they doing and how are they coping? (---------). But according to the APA the meaning of resilience does not mean individuals experience stressors in their life. Common individuals experience the emotional effects that suffer with PTSD or major adversities. In fact, resilience is not a characteristic or trait that individual may or may not pose. There are behaviors, thoughts and action can be learned by individuals (2018). Similarities of Resilience and psychosocial theory A combination of factors contributes to resilience and psychosocial theory. Many studies implicate that factor such as having supportive and helping community relationships and mentors within and outside the family build a strong foundation to overcome adversities.
Additionally, resilience and psychosocial development is to overcome the lifespan development stage. Limitations on Resilience Clearly, comparing theories with one another they tend to reflect many differences due to multidisciplinary point of views. It is crucially important social workers have knowledge on theory differences implicates. As a social worker professional, the core value must be held to the high standards to service individuals and be held accountable. Therefore Erickson's having developed the different stages of life might cause to have an interruption with . Resilience individuals focuses Social economy weakness Several scientists have warned that invoking the term resilience may be perceived as suggesting that if only children had a particular trait, or if only they displayed particular behaviors, then they could withstand adversities. Such perspectives can inadvertently pave the way for blaming the individual for not possessing characteristics needed to function well (Masten, 1994; Pianta & Walsh, 1998; Reynolds, 1998; Tarter & Vanyukov, 1999) and can lead some political leaders to justify limited protection to children from conditions of poverty, maltreatment, and distress (Pianta & Walsh, 1998), with the rationale that children should be responsible for forging their own Horatio Alger pathway through risk and toward success'(Doll & Lyon, 1998, p. 360). Vs. Psychosocial Implications Through Erickson's research he developed stages of framework in providing the understanding of the characteristics and roles of each stage are developed. Erickson's concepts have not provided a solution rather a perspective towards the client's life struggles.