Continuous industrial-scale adsorption processes are well known for their efficiency.
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Very often, the Height Equivalent of a Theoretical Plate (HETP) in a batch operation is roughly three times higher than one find for the continuous mode (Gembicki et al., 2002). The operation of continuous chromatographic counter current apparatus (here-by referred as True Moving Bed, TMB) in particular, maximizes the mass transfer driving force providing a better utilization of the adsorbent, and thus, allowing the use of lower selectivity materials (Ruthven and Ching, 1989) as to operate with an increased productivity (i.e., higher processed throughput using less packing material). A scheme of a TMB unit is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 – A four section True Moving Bed (TMB) unit for the separation of A and B with D as eluent or desorbent (Fructose/Glucose separation).
If we define section as the part of the TMB unit where the fluid flow rate is approximately constant (section limited by inlet/outlet streams), then, it is possible to find four different sections with different roles:
Section I: Regeneration of the adsorbent (desorption of A from the solid);
Section II: Desorption of B (so that, the extract is not contaminated by the less retained component);
Section III: Adsorption of A (raffinate clean from the more adsorbed species);
Section IV: Regeneration of the eluent/desorbent (adsorption of B from the fluid phase).
From Figure 1, one can observed that the counter-current movement of the solid, with respect to the fluid phase, allows continuous regeneration of both the adsorbent in section I as the eluent/desorbent in section IV. Also, the moving bed arrangement allows the achievement of high purity even if the resolution of the two peaks is not excellent, since only the purity at the two tails of the concentration profiles, where the withdrawal ports are located, is of interest. This is contrary to batch chromatography where high resolution is vital in order to achieve high purity.
Nevertheless, with this counter current mode of operation is necessary to circulate not only the fluid phase but also the solid. The solid motion inside of the column and the consequent recycle presents some technical problems, namely: equipment abrasion, mechanical erosion of adsorbent and difficulties in maintaining plug flow for the solid (especially in beds with large diameter). From a technical point of view, this clearly limits the implementation of such technology.
In order to avoid this issue, a sequence of fixed bed columns was conceived (Broughton and Gerhold, 1961) in which the solid phase is at rest in relation to a fixed referential,
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