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Scientific Method and Research

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1. Describe what C. Wright Mills meant by the term Sociological Imagination. C. Wright Mills believed you should take a look at oneself and compare it to the bigger picture which is “Society. ” Mills wanted people to view the world as an outsider looking in on the problems of the social order rather than looking into oneself for answers. Mills also believed that individuals take for granted his or her own lifestyle and what they feel should be acceptable within all of society. Belief systems vary throughout the world - however, Mills deemed that when the populace was able to take a more analytical examination, discerning from themselves, dealing with societal problems would be more beneficial to all. 2. Describe the similarities and differences between Conflict Theory and the Feminist Perspective. Both Conflict Theory and the Feminist Perspective share a basic “Tug of War” between different groups of power. Both consist of various bias towards ideas over the way people think as well as economics within society i. . Conflict Theory shows that the poor would be more accountable for a crime than the rich, as within the Feminist Perspective women were not treated equal to men, thus resulting in women being declared as a lower class when compared to men. Conflict Theory demonstrated the poor were belittled equally as within the Feminist Perspective women were disparaged as well. Society dictated that these aforementioned groups were not good enough. The differences between the Conflict Theory and the Feminist Perspective are unambiguous. While the Conflict Theory deals with all of society, economically based, and is uniformity with power, the Feminist Perspective deals only with women, their classlessness, rights, and their social rolls. Conflict Theory does not comprise an inclusion of violence whereas the feminist movement encompasses how women have been abused domestically. 3. Define the term scientific method and the five basic steps used in the scientific method. Scientific method is the process of research where a problem is recognized, pertinent information is gathered, and a hypothesis is formulated. This methodology is comprised of trial and error as well as cause effect. The latter of the Scientific Method is a result of experience and/or observation. i. Defining the problem. What is the question or problem you need to solve? Who, what, where, when, which, why or how? ii. Review the literature. Research can be conducted by the use of external sources, i. e. Internet, books, interviews, pictures, focus groups, and historical accounts just to name a few. iii. Formulating the hypothesis. A hypothesis is an educated guess about what you are researching. A hypothesis should be put together in a manner that is helping you to answer your original question. Variables are included within a hypothesis so that the research is done fairly – these variables are usually formed to be independent, dependent and controlled. iv. Selecting the research, design, and then collecting as well as analyzing data. This means that information that is assembled must be reliable, legitimate, and have a consistent result. Taking in account what the person may be researching, a survey may be taken by asking other people a number of questions. Inquiring to how a person thinks or feels about something particularly can assist in creating charts, graphs, and quantitative (numerical) research. Qualitative research is an observation of what goes on around you within the environment. Once all research data is collected, an analysis and comparison is conducted which in the end will demonstrate the original hypothesis to be factual or false. This procedure may be repeated in order to corroborate the original outcome. v. Developing the conclusion. This is a progression that demonstrates all that the person has learned. If all of the information gathered and reviewed supports the hypothesis, it may also lead to other research studies in the future. 4. Discuss the issue of ethics and social research (Give examples to support how research could be harmful to human life. Ethics require explicit standards – simplified, in order to have ethics one needs to know the distinction between right and wrong. Fundamental principles are used while conducting any type of research; these are referred to as the “Code of Ethics”. This code was formed and pieced together in 1971. This code was assembled in order to protect the person or subject who is part of any research from any harm. The code upholds that any information gathered from the person or subject would be kept confidential. Consent from the person or subject for information gathered would be compulsory as well as acknowledgment of all of the researchers that had helped in the study and recognition of those giving economic support to the research. Nevertheless this can also lead to public disagreements, and long debates as a result of conflicting opinions. The researcher must be impartial toward his or her research so as the results are not tainted and not prejudice. Social Research is a group of people, a think-tank whose sole purpose is to research ideas and gather information that would be relative to society. The ideas that are formulated within this group are introduced to society, and may possibly cause a shift in the way people identify specific situations. The Tobacco Industry. If there is an industry that may be the most dubious of Social Research and the inclusion of Ethics, it would have to be the tobacco industry. The studies conducted by the tobaccos industry in the past have proven to be false – Hearing on the Regulation of Tobacco Products House Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Health and the Environment (1994) is when seven CEO’s within the tobacco industry claimed that nicotine was non-addictive. Clearly this is an industry that time and time again has proven that the “Code of Ethics” does have the ability to be desecrated. Though a major industry, their research has provoked the public to doubt that nicotine is addictive thus shifting the public to think differently towards tobacco products which are indeed harmful to their health. Greening of America. Whenever the government is involved in funding, and major companies are involved – most in particular General Electric, research may be contaminated. The CEO of General Electric has allocated a position within the government which may create revenue into the billions of dollars for General Electric with the production of “Green” products that will sell if regulations set by this particular board are implemented. This would result in the mandate of “Green” appliances to be purchased within the United States by its populace. This certainly will cause prices to be inflated for electrical consumer products which will lead to less consumer purchasing power. As a result, businesses will close, unemployment will increase, and tax revenue will decrease causing major cuts in local public services. This will effect a national inflation, the lowering of the valuation of the dollar, an increase of crime, and consequently resulting in the demise of the quality of life for the country’s citizenry. References Tobacco CEO's Statement to Congress 1994 News Clip "Nicotine is not addictive. " (2009, October). Hearing on the Regulation of Tobacco Products House Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Health and the Environment April 14, 1994. Retrieved May 15, 2010, from http://senate. ucsf. edu/tobacco/executives1994congress. html.
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