Geographically, the valley of the Nile is the great protagonist of the Egyptian civilization. This valley has an arid and hostile desert that, according to Soravilla Espa?, the Egyptians knew as the Red Land. The fertile land, or Black Land, Egypt, was divided into 2 clearly differentiated zones, one zone is the Nile Valley and the other zone is the Nile Delta.
The Black Land was periodically bathed by the waters of the Nile River. This land was fertile thanks to the floods of the river and the minerals in suspension that it contained. The Nile valley ends near Cairo, a little to the north. This is where the Nile Delta begins. In this place the river divides into several arms forming meanders and swampy areas, until it ends at the Mediterranean Sea. (Soravilla Espa?, page 16)
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These two geographical areas divided Egypt into two parts. The part of the valley was the Upper Egypt, and the part of the Delta was the Lower Egypt. Kings of the Upper Egypt during the Predynastic period proceeded to conquer the delta unifying the two territories. The last of those conquerors was King Narmer. His successor named Aha or Menes founded the capital of the kingdom in Memphis, which was strategically in the place of encounter between the Valley of the Nile and the Delta. (What life was like, page 12)
The geographical location of Egypt marked the culture and beliefs of its people. Life there was very difficult: on the one hand there was the proximity of the desert, a place where life was practically impossible and on the other hand there was the dependence on the flows of the Nile river for survival. This made the Egyptians exposed and highly dependent on the effects of nature.
Due to these circumstances the Egyptians relied on the help of the gods to prosper.
Religion touched all aspects of life in ancient Egypt, and it affected the development of science and technology.
Another important tool for the development of sciences was the apparition of writing. With the help of the writing system they were able to record thoughts or ideas, and to share them with others.
Within the beliefs of ancient Egypt was the idea of a life beyond death. For the Egyptians it was very important to keep the body healthy in this life as well as in the next. Due to this idea, mummification systems were developed to preserve the bodies for the next life. This practice also helped them to learn concepts of human anatomy. For example, they knew that the heart was a fundamental part of being able to live.
In order to protect the body in life the Egyptians developed medicine,
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