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1. Introduction

1.1. Background to the research

According to the Chambers 20th Century dictionary the research could be defined as a “Systematic investigation towards increasing the sum of knowledge�. It was also stated as “An endeavor to discover new or collate old facts by the scientific study of a subject or by a course of critical investigation� in the Concise Oxford Dictionary.

Research can also be defined as the process in which helps you to find something new or it helps in clarifying certain doubts about the research that is been done already. This research looks in to the factors that encourage business organization all over the world to engage in the process of mergers and acquisitions (M&A). It also examines the factors and incentives on the basis of which the M&A have been a continuous popular strategy for the firms for expanding their businesses. Why and what type of firms will engage in this process.

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This research also helps the firms to understand the benefits that they can get from the M&A process. There are various other growth and diversification strategies like franchising, licensing, Joint ventures which are popular amongst the business organizations.

This research also discussed the challenges that firms face while engaging in the process of M&A. M&A is not an easy process because it is difficult for the organizations that are previously competing with each other to join and work together as one new entity.

Organizations have different culture; they are using different management practices. It is very difficult for the employees to adjust to the new culture of the organization. In this research it is also going to be found out that what benefits that a firm can get after a successful M&A process.

Mergers and acquisitions is an issue of great academic interest. There are studies about this issue in the field of industrial economic and strategic management as well as on organizational theories. Especially in the current economic situation, where companies are facing liquidity problems and facing tough competitions from their rivals, M&A is an important survival strategy as well for the organizations. With the globalization and the world is being a global village, the need for companies to join together and to cater the needs of the customers have to work together.

The phenomenon of M&A is equally popular amongst the firms with same kind of business as well as for the organization in different business. The firm that is discussed as a case study in this research is a big pharmaceutical company of the world. After the merger the company became the biggest pharmaceutical company of the world. In year 1998 the volume of business through the M&A process was 2.4 trillion. This figure increases every year with more and more companies are entering the process of M&A.

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