Research on Medical Imaging Technology Applied to Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

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ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a central nervous system disease and causes most cases of dementia. Due to the pathogenesis of AD is still not understood well, the clinical diagnosis of AD is mainly based on patients’ clinical manifestations currently, but the sensitivity and specificity of this diagnostic method is limited. With the rapid development of modern medicine, medical imaging plays an increasingly important role in clinical diagnosis. The maturity of various imaging technologies and the improvement of various medical imaging analysis software have brought a new way to the early diagnosis of AD to better detect and monitor brain changes in AD. Medical imaging techniques can be used for early diagnosis of AD to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnosis.

Key words: Alzheimer’s disease; Early diagnosis; Medical imaging technology

Introduction

Senile dementia is a general term for all types of dementia that occur in the elderly, including AD, vascular dementia, mixed dementia and other dementia caused by other causes. The prevalence of AD accounts for 60%~70% of senile dementia [1]. As a neurodegenerative disease, the pathogenesis of AD is not completely clear [2]. Its characteristic pathological changes are atrophy of the cerebral cortex, accompanied by deposition of beta-amyloid, neurofibrillary tangles and a decrease in the number of neurons [3-4]. AD is divided into several stages based on cognitive level, and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may deteriorate to AD or present a stable non-progressive symptom [5]. It will be important for disease awareness and early intervention that accurately predicting whether MCI will be further transformed into AD. This article reviews the current advances in medical imaging technology studies of AD.

Positron emission computed tomography

Positron emission computed tomography (PET) is a three-dimensional imaging technique that injects positron isotope-labeled compounds into the interior of organisms and measures their spatial distribution and temporal characteristics in vitro.

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