In recent years, racial profiling has become a controversial matter throughout the US law enforcement policy. According to Miller (2007), racial profiling has become an omnipresent term throughout American policing, leading to an unclear consensus pertaining to its actual meaning. Society has formed a basic definition in concern with racial disparities in traffic stops from law enforcement.
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This influences the assumption of profiling to appear whether to hire, enforce a traffic stop, or even acknowledge suspicion of someone (Miller, 2007). While racial profiling brings a great amount of attention towards the public, policy makers, and police officers personally, one major outcome following this sort of attention aligns with the desire to bring attention towards the issue of policy that potentially prohibit this behavior that could be characterized as racial profiling (Miller, 2007). Focusing on the policy perspective of the issue, various nonprofit groups such as the American Civil Liberties Union, the Police Executive Research Forum, and even the International Association of Chiefs of Police have identified racial profiling as being a growing issue for law enforcement nationwide (Miller, 2007).
The act of using ones’ race or ethnicity for justification of suspecting them of committing an offense has been portrayed in various ways, stopping drivers for minor traffic violations to carry out a search or deciding which pedestrian will be stopped and searched for illegal contraband. In addition, racial profiling has been used in means to target and exploit individuals in the investigation of illegal immigration and ties to terrorism. As the amount of profiling incidents remain continuous, the spotlight on the issue at hand continues to widen, including an increase in the tension and dispute within the trust of law enforcement to maintain public safety. While it may have a direct impact on the victims, racial profiling shows a ripple effect throughout the remainder of society in the aspects of business, health and public safety. Miller (2007) expresses that from policy makers and police officials points of views, profiling is a secluded issue that is influenced by the actions of the small percentage of unprofessional and racist officers. As a result, associations such as the International Association of Chiefs of Police insist that profiling is as much of an issue for police as it can be for perception of the reality of the concept, leading police organizations to considering a seizure on profiling as a problem in order to encourage a change in public perception versus organized or officer behavior (Miller, 2007).
In the study conducted by Miller (2007), he mentions a study by the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), and how it addresses the prevalence of police in response to threats directed at police image and legitimacy in regard to racial profiling. According to the data that was a result of this study by LEMAS,
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