Principles of Managerial Finance

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PART 1 Introduction to Managerial Finance CHAPTERS IN THIS PART 1 2 3 The Role and Environment of Managerial Finance Financial Statements and Analysis Cash Flow and Financial Planning INTEGRATIVE CASE 1: TRACK SOFTWARE, INC. CHAPTER 1 The Role and Environment of Managerial Finance INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCES Overview This chapter introduces the student to the field of finance and explores career opportunities in both financial services and managerial finance. The three basic legal forms of business organization (sole proprietorship, partnership, and corporation) and their strengths and weaknesses are described, as well as the relationship between major parties in a corporation. The managerial finance function is defined and differentiated from economics and accounting. The chapter then summarizes the three key activities of the financial manager: financial analysis and planning, investment decisions, and financing decisions. A discussion of the financial manager's goals – maximizing shareholder wealth and preserving stakeholder wealth – and the role of ethics in meeting these goals is presented. The chapter includes discussion of the agency problem – the conflict that exists between managers and owners in a large corporation. Money and capital markets and their major components are introduced in this chapter. The final section covers a discussion of the impact of taxation on the firm's financial activities. PMF DISK This chapter's topics are not covered on the PMF Tutor, PMF Problem-Solver, or the PMF Templates. Study Guide The following Study Guide example is suggested for classroom presentation: Example 1 3 Topic Earnings per share Income tax calculation ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 1-1 Finance is the art and science of managing money. Finance affects all individuals, businesses, and governments in the process of the transfer of money through institutions, markets, and instruments. Financial services is the area of finance concerned with the design and delivery of advice and financial products to individuals, businesses, and government. Managerial finance encompasses the functions of budgeting, financial forecasting, credit administration, investment analysis, and funds procurement for the firm. Managerial finance is the management of the firm's funds within the firm. This field offers many career opportunities, including financial analyst, capital budgeting analyst, and cash manager (Note: Other answers possible). 1-3 Sole proprietorships are the most common form of business organization, while corporations are responsible for the majority of business receipts and profits. Corporations account for the majority of business receipts and profits because they receive certain tax advantages and can expand more easily due to access to capital markets. Stockholders are the true owners, through equity in common and preferred stock, of a corporation. They elect the board of directors, which has the ultimate authority to guide corporate affairs and set general policy. The board is usually composed of key corporate personnel and outside directors. The president (CEO) reports to the board. He or she is responsible for day-to-day operations and carrying out policies established by the board. The owners of the corporation do not have a direct relationship with management but give their input through the election of board members and voting on major charter issues. The owners of the firm are compensated through the receipt of cash dividends paid by the firm or by realizing capital gains through increases in the price of their common stock shares. The most popular form of limited liability organizations other than corporations are: ? Limited partnerships – A partnership with at least one general partner with unlimited liability and one or more limited partners that have limited liability. In return for the limited liability, the limited partners are prohibited from active management of the partnership. ? S corporation – If certain requirements are met, the S corporation can be taxed as a partnership but receive most of the benefits of the corporate form of organization. ? Limited liability corporation (LLC) – This form of organization is like an S corporation in that it is taxed as a partnership but primarily functions like a corporation. The LLC differs from the S corporation in that it is allowed to own 1-2 1-4 1-5 other corporations and be owned by other corporations, partnerships, and non-U. S. residents. ? Limited liability partnership (LLP) – A partnership form authorized by many states that gives the partners limited liability from the acts of other partners, but not from personal individual acts of malpractice. The LLP is taxed as a partnership. This form is most frequently used by legal and accounting professionals. These firms generally do not have large numbers of owners. Most typically have fewer than 100 owners. 1-6 Virtually every function within a firm is in some way connected with the receipt or disbursement of cash. The cash relationship may be associated with the generation of sales through the marketing department, the incurring of raw material costs through purchasing, or the earnings of production workers. Since finance deals primarily with management of cash for operation of the firm every person within the firm needs to be knowledgeable of finance to effectively work with employees of the financial departments. The treasurer or financial manager within the mature firm must make decisions with respect to handling financial planning, acquisition of fixed assets, obtaining funds to finance fixed assets, managing working capital needs, managing the pension fund, managing foreign exchange, and distribution of corporate earnings to owners. Finance is often considered a form of applied economics. Firms operate within the economy and must be aware of economic principles, changes in economic activity, and economic policy. Principles developed in economic theory are applied to specific areas in finance. From macroeconomics comes the institutional structure in which money and credit flows take place. From microeconomics, finance draws the primary principle used in financial management, marginal analysis. Since this analysis of marginal benefits and costs is a critical component of most financial decisions, the financial manager needs basic economic knowledge. a. Accountants operate on an accrual basis, recognizing revenues at the point of sale and expenses when incurred. The financial manager focuses on the actual inflows and outflows of cash, recognizing revenues when actually received and expenses when actually paid. . The accountant primarily gathers and presents financial data; the financial manager devotes attention primarily to decision making through analysis of financial data. 1-10 The two key activities of the financial manager as related to the firm’s balance sheet are: (1) Making investment decisions: Determining both the most efficient level and the best mix of assets; and (2) Making financing decisions: Establishing and maintaining the proper mix of shortand long-term financing and raising needed financing in the most economical fashion. 1-7 1-8 -9 Making investment decisions concerns the left-hand side of the balance sheet (current and fixed assets). Making financing decisions deals with the right-hand side of the balance sheet (current liabilities, long-term debt, and stockholders' equity). 1-11 Profit maximization is not consistent with wealth maximization due to: (1) the timing of earnings per share, (2) earnings which do not represent cash flows available to stockholders, and (3) a failure to consider risk. Risk is the chance that actual outcomes may differ from expected outcomes. Financial managers must consider both risk and return because of their inverse effect on the share price of the firm. Increased risk may decrease the share price, while increased return may increase the share price. The goal of the firm, and therefore all managers, is to maximize shareholder wealth. This goal is measured by share price; an increasing price per share of common stock relative to the stock market as a whole indicates achievement of this goal. Mathematically, economic value added (EVA) is the after-tax operating profits a firm earns from an investment minus the cost of funds used to finance the investment. If the resulting value is positive (negative), shareholders wealth is increased (decreased) by the investment. EVA is used for determining if an existing or planned investment will result in an increase in shareholder wealth, and should thus be continued in order to fulfill the financial management function of maximizing shareholder wealth. In recent years the magnitude and severity of "white collar crime" has increased dramatically, with a corresponding emphasis on prosecution by government authorities. As a result, the actions of all corporations and their executives have been subjected to closer scrutiny. This increased scrutiny of this type of crime has resulted in many firms establishing corporate ethics guidelines and policies to cover employee actions in dealing with all corporate constituents. The adoption of high ethical standards by a corporation strengthens its competitive position by reducing the potential for litigation, maintaining a positive image, and building shareholder confidence. The result is enhancement of longterm value and a positive effect on share price. Market forces – for example, shareholder activism from large institutional investors – can reduce or avoid the agency problem because these groups can use their voting power to elect new directors who support their objectives and will act to replace poorly performing managers. In this way, these groups place pressure on management to take actions that maximize shareholder wealth. The threat of hostile takeovers also acts as a deterrent to the agency problem. Hostile takeovers occur when a company or group not supported by existing management attempts to acquire the firm. Because the acquirer looks for companies that are poorly managed and undervalued, this threat motivates managers to act in the best interests of the firm's owners. 1-17 Firms incur agency costs to prevent or minimize agency problems. It is unclear whether they are effective in practice. The four categories of agency cost are monitoring expenditures incurred by the owners for audit and control procedures, bonding 1-12 1-13 1-14 1-15 1-16 xpenditures to protect against the potential consequences of dishonest acts by managers, structuring expenditures that use managerial compensation plans to provide financial incentives for managerial actions consistent with share price maximization, and opportunity costs resulting from the difficulties typically encountered by large organizations in responding to new opportunities. Structuring expenditures are currently the most popular way to deal with the agency problem – and also the most powerful and expensive. Compensation plans can be either incentive or performance plans. Incentive plans tie management performance to share price. Managers may receive stock options giving them the right to purchase stock at a set price. This provides the incentive to take actions that maximize stock price so that the price will rise above the option's price level. This form of compensation plan has fallen from favor recently because market behavior, which has a significant effect on share price, is not under management's control. As a result, performance plans are more popular today. With these, compensation is based on performance measures, such as earnings per share (EPS), EPS growth, or other return ratios. Managers may receive performance shares and/or cash bonuses when stated performance goals are reached. In practice, recent studies have been unable to document any significant correlation between CEO compensation and share price. 1-18 The key participants in financial transactions are individuals, businesses, and governments. These parties participate both as suppliers and demanders of funds. Individuals are net suppliers, which means that they save more dollars than they borrow, while both businesses and governments are net demanders since they borrow more than they save. One could say that individuals provide the excess funds required by businesses and governments. Financial markets provide a forum in which suppliers of funds and demanders of loans and investments can transact business directly. Primary market is the name used to denote the fact that a security is being issued by the demander of funds to the supplier of funds. An example would be Microsoft Corporation selling new shares of common stock to the public. Secondary market refers to the trading of securities among investors subsequent to the primary market issuance. In secondary market trading, no new funds are being raised by the demander of funds. The security is trading ownership among investors. An example would be individual “A” buying common stock of Microsoft through a broker. Financial institutions and financial markets are not independent of each other. It is quite common to find financial institutions actively participating in both the money market and the capital market as both suppliers and demanders of funds. Financial institutions often channel their investments and obtain needed financing through the financial markets. This relationship exists since these institutions must use the structure of the financial marketplace to find a supplier of funds. 1-20 The money market is a financial relationship between the suppliers and demanders of short-term debt securities maturing in one year or less, such as U. S. Treasury bills, 1-19 commercial paper, and negotiable certificates of deposit. The money market has no one specific physical location. Typically the suppliers and demanders are matched through the facilities of large banks in New York City and through government securities dealers. -21 The Eurocurrency market is the international equivalent of the U. S. money market and is used for short-term bank time deposits denominated in dollars or other major currencies. These deposits can be lent by the banks to creditworthy corporations, governments, or other banks at the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) – the base rate used for all Eurocurrency loans. The capital market is a financial relationship created by a number of institutions and arrangements that allows the suppliers and demanders of long-term funds (with maturities greater than one year) to make transactions. The key securities traded in the capital markets are bonds plus common and preferred stock. Securities exchanges provide a forum for debt and equity transactions. They bring together demanders and suppliers of funds, create a continuous market for securities, allocate scarce capital, determine and publicize security prices, and aid in new financing. The over-the-counter market is not a specific institution, but rather an intangible market for the buyers and sellers of securities not listed on the major exchanges. The dealers are inked with purchasers and sellers through the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System (NASDAQ), a complex telecommunications network. Prices of traded securities are determined by both competitive bids and negotiation. The over-the-counter market differs from organized security exchanges in its lack of a physical trading location and the absence of listing and membership requirements. In addition to the U. S. capital markets, corporations can raise debt and equity funds in capital markets located in other countries. The Eurobond market is the oldest and largest international debt market. Corporate and government bonds issued in this market are denominated in dollars or other major currencies and sold to investors outside the country in whose currency the bonds are denominated. Foreign bond markets also provide corporations with the opportunity to tap other capital sources. Corporations or governments issue bonds denominated in the local currency and sold only in that home market. The international equity market allows corporations to sell blocks of stock to investors in several countries, providing a diversified investor base and additional opportunities to raise larger amounts of capital. An efficient market will allocate funds to their most productive uses due to competition among wealth-maximizing investors. Investors determine the price of assets through their participation in the financial markets and publicize those prices that are believed to be close to their true value. The ordinary income of a corporation is income earned through the sale of a firm's goods or services. Taxes on corporate ordinary income have two components: a fixed amount on the base figure for its income bracket level, plus a progressive percentage, ranging from 15% to 39%, applied to the excess over the base bracket figure. A capital gain occurs when a capital asset is sold for more than its initial purchase price. Capital gains are added to ordinary income and taxed at the regular corporate rates. The average tax rate is calculated by dividing taxes paid by taxable income. For firms with taxable 1-22 1-23 1-24 1-25 1-26 income of $10 million or less, it ranges from 15 to 34 percent. For firms with taxable income in excess of $10 million, it ranges between 34 and 35 percent. The marginal tax rate is the rate at which additional income is taxed. -27 Intercorporate dividends are those received by a corporation for stock held in other corporations. To avoid triple taxation, if ownership is less than 20%, these dividends are subject to a 70% exclusion for tax purposes. (The exclusion percentage is higher if ownership exceeds 20%. ) Since interest income from intercorporate bond investments is taxed in full, this tax exclusion increases the attractiveness of stock investments over bond investments made by one corporation in another. The tax deductibility of corporate expenses reduces their actual after-tax cost. Corporate interest is a tax-deductible expense, while dividends are not. The purpose of a tax loss carryback and carryforward is to provide a more equitable tax treatment for corporations that are experiencing volatile patterns of income. It is particularly attractive for firms in cyclical businesses such as construction. To illustrate a loss carryback, assume a firm had a positive taxable income in 2000 and 2001 and then experienced a negative taxable income in 2002. The negative amount can first be used to reduce the 2000 taxable income by the amount of the tax loss to as low as zero. If any tax loss from 2002 remains, it can be applied against the 2001 taxable income until the loss is exhausted or 2001 taxable income reaches zero. A tax refund will then be obtained for 2000 and 2001 for the taxes previously paid. Any remaining loss would have to wait for the 2003 tax year to see if it needs to be carried forward. 1-28 1-29 SOLUTION TO PROBLEMS 1-1 LG 1: Liability Comparisons a. Ms. Harper has unlimited liability. b. Ms. Harper has unlimited liability. c. Ms. Harper has limited liability, which guarantees that she cannot lose more than she invested. LG 2, 4: The Managerial Finance Function and Economic Value Added a. Benefits from new robotics $560,000 Benefits from existing robotics 400,000 Marginal benefits $160,000 b. Initial cash investment Receipt from sale of old robotics Marginal cost c. Marginal benefits Marginal cost Net benefits $220,000 70,000 $150,000 $160,000 150,000 $ 10,000 1-2 d. Ken should recommend that the company replace the old robotics with the new robotics. Since the EVA is positive, the wealth of the shareholders would be increased by accepting the change. e. EVA uses profits as the estimate of cost and benefits. Profits ignore the important points of timing, cash flow, and risk, three important factors to determining the true impact on shareholders' wealth. 1-3 LG 2: Annual Income versus Cash Flow for a Period a. Sales $760,000 Cost of good sold 300,000 Net profit $460,000 b. Cash Receipts Cost of good sold Net cash flow $690,000 300,000 $390,000 c. The cash flow statement is more useful to the financial manager. The accounting net income includes amounts that will not be collected and, as a result, do not contribute to the wealth of the owners. 1-4 LG 4: Identifying Agency Problems, Costs, and Resolutions a. In this case the employee is being compensated for unproductive time. The company has to pay someone to take her place during her absence. Installation of a time clock that must be punched by the receptionist every time she leaves work and returns would result in either: (1) her returning on time or (2) reducing the cost to the firm by reducing her pay for the lost work. b. The costs to the firm are in the form of opportunity costs. Money budgeted to cover the inflated costs of this project proposal is not available to fund other projects which may help to increase shareholder wealth. Make the management reward system based on how close the manager's estimates come to the actual cost rather than having them come in below cost. c. The manager may negotiate a deal with the merging competitor which is extremely beneficial to the executive and then sell the firm for less than its fair market value. A good way to reduce the loss of shareholder wealth would be to open the firm up for purchase bids from other firms once the manager makes it known that the firm is willing to merge. If the price offered by the competitor is too low, other firms will up the price closer to its fair market value. . Generally part time or temporary workers are not as productive as full-time employees. These workers have not been on the job as long to increase their work efficiency. Also, the better employees generally need to be highly compensated for their skills. This manager is getting rid of the highest cost employees to increase profits. One approach to reducing the problem would be to give the manager performance shares if they meet certain stated goals. Implementing a stock incentive plan tying management compensation to share price would also encourage the manager to retain quality employees. -5 LG 6: Corporate Taxes a. Firm's tax liability on $92,500 (from Table 1. 4): Total taxes due = $13,750 + [. 34 x ($92,500 - $75,000)] = $13,750 + (. 34 x $17,500) = $13,750 + $5,950 = $19,700 After-tax earnings: Average tax rate: Marginal tax rate: $92,500 $19,700 34% ? $19,700 $92,500 = = $72,800 21. 3% b. c. d. 1-6 a. LG 6: Average Corporate Tax Rates Tax calculations using Table 1. 4: $10,000: Tax liability: $10,000 x . 15 = After-tax earnings: $10,000 $1,500 = Average tax rate: $1,500 ? $10,000 = $80,000: Tax liability: $1,500 $8,500 15% $13,750 + [. 4 x (80,000 - $75,000)] $13,750 + (. 34 x $5,000) $13,750 + $1,700 $15,450 = Total tax $80,000 $15,450 ? $15,450 = $80,000 = $64,550 19. 3% After-tax earnings: Average tax rate: $300,000: Tax liability: $22,250 + [. 39 x ($300,000 - $100,000)] $22,250 + (. 39 x $200,000) $22,250 + $78,000 $100,250 = Total tax $300,000 $100,250 ? $100,250 = $199,750 $300,000 = 33. 4% After-tax earnings: Average tax rate: $500,000: Tax liability: $113,900 + [. 34 x ($500,000 - $335,000)] $113,900 + (. 34 x $165,000) $113,900 + $56,100 $170,000 = Total tax $500,000 $170,000 ? $170,000 = $330,000 $500,000 = 34% After-tax earnings: Average tax rate: $1,500,000: Tax liability: $113,900 + [. 34 x ($1,500,000 - $335,000)] $113,900 + (. 34 x $1,165,000) $113,900 + $396,100 $510,000 = Total tax After-tax earnings: Average tax rate: $10,000,000: Tax liability: $1,500,000 $510,000 ? $510,000 $1,500,000 = = $990,000 34% $113,900 + [. 34 x ($10,000,000 - $335,000)] $113,900 + (. 34 x $9,665,000) $113,900 + $3,286,100 $3,400,000 = Total tax After-tax earnings: Average tax rate: $15,000,000: Tax liability: $10,000,000 $3,400,000 = $3,400,000 ? $10,000,000 = $6,600,000 34% $3,400,000 + [. 4 x ($15,000,000 - $10,000,000)] $3,400,000 + (. 34 x $5,000,000) $3,400,000 + $1,750,000 $5,150,000 = Total tax $15,000,000 $5,150,000 = $5,150,000 ? $15,000,000 = $9,850,000 34. 33% After-tax earnings: Average tax rate: b. Average Tax Rate versus Pretax Income 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Average Tax Rate % Pretax Income Level ($000) As income increases, the rate approaches but does not reach 35%. 1-7 a. LG 6: Marginal Corporate Tax Rates Pretax Income $ 15,000 60,000 90,000 200,000 Base Tax $ 0 7,500 13,750 22,250 + + + + + % (. 15 (. 5 (. 34 (. 39 Tax Calculation Amount x over Base x 15,000) x 10,000) x 15,000) x 100,000) = = = = = Tax $ 2,250 10,000 18,850 61,250 Marginal Rate 15. 0% 25. 0% 34. 0% 39. 0% 400,000 1,000,000 20,000,000 113,900 113,900 3,400,000 + + + (. 34 (. 34 (. 35 x x x 65,000) 665,000) 10,000,000) = = = 136,000 340,000 6,900,000 34. 0% 34. 0% 35. 0% b. Marginal Tax Rate versus Pretax Income 40 Marginal Tax Rate % 35 30 25 20 15 10 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 Pretax Income Level ($000) As income increases to $335,000, the marginal tax rate approaches and peaks at 39%. For income in excess of $335,000, the marginal tax rate declines to 34%, and after $10 million the marginal rate increases slightly to 35%. 1-8 a. LG 6: Interest versus Dividend Income Tax on operating earnings: $490,000 x . 40 tax rate = $196,000 b. and c. Before-tax amount Less: Applicable exclusion Taxable amount Tax (40%) After-tax amount (b) Interest Income $20,000 0 $20,000 8,000 $12,000 (c) Dividend Income $20,000 14,000 (. 70 x $20,000) $ 6,000 2,400 $17,600 d. The after-tax amount of dividends received, $17,600, exceeds the after-tax amount of interest, $12,000, due to the 70% corporate dividend exclusion. This increases the attractiveness of stock investments by one corporation in another relative to bond investments. e. 1-9 a. Total tax liability: Taxes on operating earnings (from a. ) + Taxes on interest income (from b. ) + Taxes on dividend income (from c. ) Total tax liability LG 6: Interest versus Dividend Expense EBIT Less: Interest expense Earnings before taxes Less: Taxes (40%) Earnings after taxes* $40,000 10,000 $30,000 12,000 $18,000 $196,000 8,000 2,400 $206,400 * This is also earnings available to common stockholders. b. EBIT Less: Taxes (40%) Earnings after taxes Less: Preferred dividends Earnings available for common stockholders LG 6: Capital Gains Taxes Capital gain: Asset X = $2,250 Asset Y = $35,000 Tax on sale of asset: Asset X = $250 Asset Y = $5,000 $40,000 16,000 $24,000 10,000 $14,000 1-10 a. $2,000 = $30,000 = $ 250 $5,000 b. x . 40 x . 40 = = $ 100 $2,000 1-11 LG 6: Capital Gains Taxes a. and b. Sale Price (1) $ 3,400 12,000 80,000 45,000 18,000 Purchase Price (2) $ 3,000 12,000 62,000 41,000 16,500 Capital Gain (1) - (2) (3) $ 400 0 18,000 4,000 1,500 Tax (3) x . 40 (4) $ 160 0 7,200 1,600 600 Asset A B C D E CHAPTER 1 CASE Assessing the Goal of Sports Products, Inc. a. Maximization of shareholder wealth, which means maximization of share price, should be the primary goal of the firm. Unlike profit maximization, this goal considers timing, cash flows, and risk. It also reflects the worth of the owners' investment in the firm at any time. It is the value they can realize should they decide to sell their shares. Yes, there appears to be an agency problem. Although compensation for management is tied to profits, it is not directly linked to share price. In addition, management's actions with regard to pollution controls suggest a profit maximization focus, which would maximize their earnings, rather than an attempt to maximize share price. The firm's approach to pollution control seems to be questionable ethically. While it is unclear whether their acts were intentional or accidental, it is clear that they are violating the law – an illegal act potentially leading to litigation costs – and as a result are damaging the environment, an immoral and unfair act that has potential negative consequences for society in general. Clearly, Sports Products has not only broken the law but also established poor standards of conduct and moral judgment. Some specific recommendations for the firm include: ? Tie management, and possibly employee, compensation to share price or a performance-based measure and make sure that all involved own stock and have a stake in the firm. Being compensated partially on the basis of share price or another performance measure, and owning stock in the firm will more closely link the wealth of managers and employees to the firm's performance. ? Comply with all federal and state laws as well as accepted standards of conduct or moral judgment. Establish a corporate ethics policy, to be read and signed by all employees. (Other answers are, of course, possible. ) b. c. d. CHAPTER 2 Financial Statements and Analysis INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCES Overview This chapter examines the key components to the stockholders' report: the income statement, balance sheet, statement of retained earnings, and the statement of cash flows. On the income statement and balance sheet, the major accounts/balances are reviewed for the student. The rules for consolidating a company's foreign and domestic financial statements (FASB No. 52) are described. Following the financial statement coverage the chapter covers the evaluation of financial statements using the technique of ratio analysis. Ratio analysis is used by prospective shareholders, creditors, and the firm's own management to measure the firm's operating and financial health. Three types of comparative analysis are defined: cross-sectional analysis, timeseries analysis, and combined analysis. The ratios are divided into five basic categories: liquidity, activity, debt, profitability, and market. Each ratio is defined and calculated using the financial statements of the Bartlett Company. A brief explanation of the implications of deviation from industry standard ratios is offered, with a complete (cross-sectional and timeseries) ratio analysis of Bartlett Company ending the chapter. The DuPont system of analysis is also integrated into the example. PMF Tutor: Financial Ratios This section of the Gitman Tutor generates problems to give the student practice calculating liquidity, activity, debt, profitability, and market ratios. PMF Problem-Solver: Financial Ratios This module allows the student to compute all the financial ratios described in the text. There are three options: all ratios, families of ratios, and individual ratios. PMF Templates Spreadsheet templates are provided for the following problems: Problem Problem 2-4 Problem 2-5 Problem 2-6 Problem 2-8 Problem 2-15 Topic Calculation of EPS and retained earnings Balance sheet preparation Impact of net income on a firm’s balance sheet Statement of retained earnings Debt analysis Study Guide Suggested Study Guide examples for classroom presentation: Example 1 2 3 Topic Basic ratio calculation Common-size income statement Evaluating ratios ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 2-1 The purpose of each of the 4 major financial statements are: Income Statement - The purpose of the income statement is to provide a financial summary of the firm’s operating results during a specified time period. It includes both the sales for the firm and the costs incurred in generating those sales. Other expenses, such as taxes, are also included on this statement. Balance Sheet – The purpose of the balance sheet is to present a summary of the assets owned by the firm, the liabilities owed by the firm, and the net financial position of the owners as of a given point in time. The assets are often referred to as investments and the liabilities and owners equity as financing. Statement of Retained Earnings - This statement reconciles the net income earned during the year, and any cash dividends paid, with the change in retained earnings during the year. Statement of Cash Flows - This statement provides a summary of the cash inflows and the cash outflows experienced by the firm during the period of concern. The inflows and outflows are grouped into the cash flow areas of operations, investment, and financing. -2 The notes to the financial statements are important because they provide detailed information not directly available in the financial statements. The footnotes provide information on accounting policies, procedures, calculation, and transactions underlying entries in the financial statements. Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement No. 52 describes the rules for consolidating a company's foreign and domestic financial statements. It requires U. S. based companies to translate foreign-currency-denominated assets and liabilities into U. S. dollars using the current rate (translation) method. This method uses the exchange rate prevailing on the date the fiscal year ends (the current rate). Income statement items can be translated using either the current rate or an average exchange rate for the period covered by the statement. Equity accounts are converted at the exchange rate on the date of the investment. In the retained earnings account any gains and losses from currency fluctuations are stated separately in an equity reserve account? the cumulative translation adjustment account? and not realized until the parent company sells or closes the foreign operations. Current and prospective shareholders place primary emphasis on the firm's current and future level of risk and return as measures of profitability, while creditors are more concerned with short-term liquidity measures of debt. Stockholders are, therefore, most interested in income statement measures, and creditors are most concerned with balance sheet measures. Management is concerned with all ratio measures, since they recognize that stockholders and creditors must see good ratios in order to keep the stock price up and raise new funds. Cross-sectional comparisons are made by comparing similar ratios for firms within the same industry, or to an industry average, as of some point in time. Time-series comparisons are made by comparing similar ratios for a firm measured at various points in time. Benchmarking is the term used to describe this cross-sectional comparison with competitor firms. The analyst should devote primary attention to any significant deviations from the norm, whether above or below. Positive deviations from the norm are not necessarily favorable. An above-normal inventory turnover ratio may indicate highly efficient inventory management but may also reveal excessively low inventory levels resulting in stockouts. Further examination into the deviation would be required. Comparing financial statements from different points in the year can result in inaccurate and misleading analysis due to the effects of seasonality. Levels of current assets can fluctuate significantly, depending on a company's business, so statements from the same 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 month or year end should be used in the analysis to ensure valid comparisons of performance. -8 The current ratio proves to be the better liquidity measure when all of the firm’s current assets are reasonably liquid. The quick ratios would prove to be the superior measure if the inventory of the firm is considered to lack the ability to be easily converted into cash. Additional information is necessary to assess how well a firm collects receivables and meets payables. The average collection period of receivables should be compared to a firm's own credit terms. The average payment period should be compared to the creditors' credit terms. Financial leverage is the term used to describe the magnification of risk and return introduced through the use of fixed-cost financing, such as debt and preferred stock. The debt ratio and the debt-equity ratio may be used to measure the firm's degree of indebtedness. The times-interest-earned and the fixed-payment coverage ratios can be used to assess the firm's ability to meet fixed payments associated with debt. Three ratios of profitability found on a common-size income statement are: (1) the gross profit margin, (2) the operating profit margin, and (3) the net profit margin. Firms that have high gross profit margins and low net profit margins have high levels of expenses other than cost of goods sold. In this case, the high expenses more than compensate for the low cost of goods sold (i. e. , high gross profit margin) thereby resulting in a low net profit margin. The owners are probably most interested in the Return on Equity (ROE) since it indicates the rate of return they earn on their investment in the firm. ROE is calculated by taking net profits after taxes and dividing by stockholders' equity. The price-earnings ratio (P/E) is the market price per share of common stock divided by the earnings per share. It indicates the amount the investor is willing to pay for each dollar of earnings. It is used to assess the owner's appraisal of the value of the firm's earnings. The level of the P/E ratio indicates the degree of confidence that investors have in the firm's future. The market/book (M/B) ratio is the market price per of common stock divided by the firm’s book value per share. Firms with high M/B ratios are expected to perform better than firms with lower relative M/B values. Liquidity ratios measure how well the firm can meet its current (short-term) obligations when they come due. Activity ratios are used to measure the speed with which various accounts are converted (or could be converted) into cash or sales. Debt ratios measure how much of the firm is financed with other people's money and the firm's ability to meet fixed charges. 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 Profitability ratios measure a firm's return with respect to sales, assets, or equity (overall performance). Market ratios give insight into how well investors in the marketplace feel the firm is doing in terms of return and risk. The liquidity and debt ratios are most important to present and prospective creditors. 2-17 The analyst may approach a complete ratio analysis on either a cross-sectional or timeseries basis by summarizing the ratios into their five key areas: liquidity, activity, debt, profitability, and market. Each of the key areas could then be summarized, highlighting specific ratios that should be investigated. The DuPont system of analysis combines profitability (the net profit margin), asset efficiency (the total asset turnover) and leverage (the debt ratio). The division of ROE among these three ratios allows the analyst to the segregate the specific factors that are contributing to the ROE into profitability, asset efficiency, or the use of debt. 2-18 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 2-1 LG 1: Reviewing Basic Financial Statements Income statement: In this one-year summary of the firm's operations, Technica, Inc. showed a net profit for 2003 and the ability to pay cash dividends to its stockholders. Balance sheet: The financial condition of Technica, Inc. at December 31, 2002 and 2003 is shown as a summary of assets and liabilities. Technica, Inc. as an excess of current assets over current liabilities, demonstrating liquidity. The firm's fixed assets represent over one-half of total assets ($270,000 of $408,300). The firm is financed by short-term debt, long-term debt, common stock, and retained earnings. It appears that it repurchased 500 shares of common stock in 2003. Statement of retained earnings: Technica, Inc. earned a net profit of $42,900 in 2003 and paid out $20,000 in cash dividends. The reconciliation of the retained earnings account from $50,200 to $73,100 shows the net amount ($22,900) retained by the firm. 2-2 LG 1: Financial Statement Account Identification a. Statement BS BS BS BS IS BS BS BS IS b. Type of Account CL CA CL FA* E FA CA SE E Account Name Accounts payable Accounts receivable Accruals Accumulated depreciation Administrative expense Buildings Cash Common stock (at par) Cost of goods sold Depreciation Equipment General expense Interest expense Inventories Land Long-term debt Machinery Marketable securities Notes payable Operating expense Paid-in capital in excess of par Account Name Preferred stock Preferred stock dividends Retained earnings Sales revenue Selling expense Taxes Vehicles IS BS IS IS BS BS BS BS BS BS IS BS a. Statement BS IS BS IS IS IS BS E FA E E CA FA LTD FA CA CL E SE b. Type of Account SE E SE R E E FA * This is really not a fixed asset, but a charge against a fixed asset, better known as a contra-asset. 2-3 a. LG 1: Income Statement Preparation Cathy Chen, CPA Income Statement for the Year Ended December 31, 2003 Sales revenue Less: Operating expenses Salaries Employment taxes and benefits Supplies Travel & entertainment Lease payment Depreciation expense Total operating expense Operating profits Less: Interest expense Net profits before taxes Less: Taxes (30%) Net profits after taxes b. $180,000 90,000 17,300 5,200 8,500 16,200 7,800 45,000 $ 35,000 7,500 $ 27,500 8,250 $ 19,250 In her first year of business, Cathy Chen covered all her operating expenses and earned a net profit of $19,250 on revenues of $180,000. 2-4 a. LG 1: Calculation of EPS and Retained Earnings Earnings per share: Net profit before taxes Less: Taxes at 40% Net profit after tax Less: Preferred stock dividends Earnings available to common stockholders Earnings per share: $218,000 87,200 $130,800 32,000 $ 98,800 Earning available to common stockholders $98,800 ? ? $1. 162 Total shares outstanding 85,000 b. Amount to retained earnings: 85,000 shares x $0. 0 = $68,000 common stock dividends Earnings available to common shareholders Less: Common stock dividends To retained earnings 2-5 LG 1: Balance Sheet Preparation Owen Davis Company Balance Sheet December 31, 2003 Assets Current assets: Cash Marketable securities Accounts receivable Inventories Total current assets Gross fixed assets Land and buildings Machinery and equipment Furniture and fixtures Vehicles Total gross fixed assets Less: Accumulated depreciation Net fixed assets Total assets Liabilities and stockholders' equity Current liabilities: Accounts payable Notes payable Accruals $98,800 68,000 $30,800 215,000 75,000 450,000 375,000 $1,115,000 $ 325,000 560,000 170,000 25,000 $1,080,000 265,000 $ 815,000 $1,930,000 $ 220,000 475,000 55,000 Total current liabilities Long-term debt Total liabilities $ 750,000 420,000 $1,170,000 Stockholders' equity Preferred stock Common stock (at par) Paid-in capital in excess of par Retained earnings Total stockholders' equity Total liabilities and stockholders' equity 2-6 LG 1: Impact of Net Income on a Firm's Balance Sheet Beginning Value $ 35,000 $1,575,000 $2,700,000 $1,575,000 $ 100,000 90,000 360,000 210,000 $ 760,000 $1,930,000 . Account Marketable securities Retained earnings Long-term debt Retained earnings Change + $1,365,000 + $1,365,000 - $ 865,000 + $ 865,000 Ending Value $1,400,000 $2,940,000 $1,835,000 $2,440,000 $2,465,000 $2,440,000 b. c. Buildings Retained earnings No net change in any accounts $1,600,000 $1,575,000 + $ 865,000 + $ 865,000 d. 2-7 LG 1: Initial Sale Price of Common Stock (Par value of common stock ? Paid in capital in excess of par) Number of common shares outstanding $225,000 ? $2,625,000 Initial sales price ? ? $9. 50 per share 300,000 Initial sales price ? -8 a. LG 1: Statement of Retained Earnings Cash dividends paid on common stock = Net profits after taxes - preferred dividends - change in retained earnings $377,000 - $47,000 - (1,048,000 $928,000) $210,000 = = Hayes Enterprises Statement of Retained Earnings for the Year Ended December 31, 2003 Retained earnings balance (January 1, 2003) Plus: Net profits after taxes (for 2003) Less: Cash dividends (paid during 2003) Preferred stock Common stock Retained earnings (December 31, 2003) b. $928,000 377,000 (47,000) (210,000) $1,048,000 Earnings per share = Net profit after tax - Preferred dividends (EACS*) Number of common shares outstanding Earnings per share = $377,000 - $47,000 ? $2. 36 140,000 * Earnings available to common stockholders c. Cash dividend per share = Total cash dividend # shares Cash dividend per share = 2-9 a. $210,000 (from part a) ? $1. 50 140,000 LG 1: Changes in Stockholders' Equity Net income for 2003 = change in retained earnings + dividends paid Net income for 2003 = ($1,500,000 – $1,000,000) + $200,000 = $700,000 New shares issued = outstanding share 2003 – outstanding shares 2002 New shares issued = 1,500,000 – 500,000 = 1,000,000 . c. ?Paid - in - capital ? ?Common stock ? shares outstanding $4,000,000 ? $1,000,000 Average issuance price ? ? $5. 00 1,000,000 Average issuance price ? Paid - in - capital ? Common stock Number of shares issued $500,000 ? $500,000 Original issuance price ? ? $2. 00 500,000 Original issuance price ? d. 2-10 LG 2, 3, 4, 5: Ratio Comparisons a. The four companies are in very different industries. The operating characteristics of firms across different industries vary significantly resulting in very different ratio values. The explanation for the lower current and quick ratios most likely rests on the fact that these two industries operate primarily on a cash basis. Their accounts receivable balances are going to be much lower than for the other two companies. High level of debt can be maintained if the firm has a large, predictable, and steady cash flow. Utilities tend to meet these cash flow requirements. The software firm will have very uncertain and changing cash flow. The software industry is subject to greater competition resulting in more volatile cash flow. Although the software industry has potentially high profits and nvestment return performance, it also has a large amount of uncertainty associated with the profits. Also, by placing all of the money in one stock, the benefits of reduced risk associated with diversification are lost. b. c. d. 2-11 a LG 3: Liquidity Management 2000 2001 1. 88 1. 74 1. 79 1. 22 1. 19 $7,950 $9,300 2002 1. 55 1. 24 $9,900 2003 Current Ratio Quick Ratio Net Working Capital b. c. 2-12 a. 1. 14 $9,600 The pattern indicates a deteriorating liquidity position. The low inventory turnover suggests that liquidity is even worse than the declining liquidity measures indicate. Slow inventory turnover may indicate obsolete inventory. LG 3: Inventory Management Sales Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit CGS Average Inventory = Inventory Turnover = Inventory Turnover Average Age of Inventory Average Age of Inventory $4,000,000 ? $1,600,000 $2,400,000 $650,000 $2,400,000 ? = 3. 69 times = 360 ? 3. 69 = 97. 6 days 100% 60% 40% $650,000 b. The Wilkins Manufacturing inventory turnover ratio significantly exceeds the industry. Although this may represent efficient inventory management, it may also represent low inventory levels resulting in stockouts. -13 a. LG 3: Accounts Receivable Management Average Collection Period = Accounts Receivable ? Average Sales per Day 45 Days = $300,000 ? ($2,400,000 ? 360) Since the average age of receivables is 15 days beyond the net date, attention should be directed to accounts receivable management. b. This may explain the lower turnover and higher average collection period. The December accounts receivable balance of $300,000 may not be a good measure of the average accounts receivable, thereby causing the calculated average collection period to be overstated. It also suggests the November figure (0-30 days overdue) is not a cause for great concern. However, 13 percent of all accounts receivable (those arising in July, August and September) are sixty days or more overdue and may be a sign of poor receivables management. LG 3: Interpreting Liquidity and Activity Ratios Bluegrass appears to be holding excess inventory relative to the industry. This fact is supported by the low inventory turnover and the low quick ratio, even though the current ratio is above the industry average. This excess inventory could be due to slow sales relative to production or possibly from carrying obsolete inventory. The accounts receivable of Bluegrass appears to be high due to the large number of days of sales outstanding (73 versus the industry average of 52 days). An important question for internal management is whether the company's credit policy is too lenient or customers are just paying slowly – or potentially not paying at all. Since the firm is paying its accounts payable in 31 days versus the industry norm of 40 days, Bluegrass may not be taking full advantage of credit terms extended to them by their suppliers. By having the receivables collection period over twice as long as the payables payment period, the firm is financing a significant amount of current assets, possibly from long-term sources. The desire is that management will be able to curtail the level of inventory either by reducing production or encouraging additional sales through a stronger sales program or discounts. If the inventory is obsolete, then it must be written off to gain the income tax benefit. The firm must also push to try to get their customers to pay earlier. Payment timing can be increased by shortening credit terms or providing a discount for earlier payment. Slowing down the payment of accounts payable would also reduce financing costs. Carrying out these recommendations may be difficult because of the potential loss of customers due to stricter credit terms. The firm would also not want to increase their costs of purchases by delaying payment beyond any discount period given by their suppliers. 2-14 a. b. c. d. 2-15 LG 4: Debt Analysis Ratio Debt Definition Debt Total Assets EBIT Interest Calculation $36,500,000 $50,000,000 $ 3,000,000 $ 1,000,000 Creek . 73 Industry . 51 Times Interest Earned 3. 00 7. 30 Fixed Payment Coverage EBIT + Lease Payment Interest + Lease Payments + {[(Principal + Preferred Stock Dividends)] x [1? (1-t)]} $3,000,000 + $200,000 1. 19 $1,000,000 + $200,000 + {[($800,000 + $100,000)] x [1? (1-. 4)]} 1. 85 2-16 Because Creek Enterprises has a much higher degree of indebtedness and much lower ability to service debt than the average firm in the industry, the loan should be rejected. LG 5: Common-Size Statement Analysis Creek Enterprises Common-Size Income Statement for the Years Ended December 31, 2002 and 2003 2003 100. 0% 70. 0% 30. 0% 2002 100. 0% 65. 9% 34. 1% Sales Revenue Less: Cost of goods sold Gross profits Less: Operating expenses: Selling 10. 0% 12. 7% General 6. 0% Lease expense . 7% Depreciation 3. 3% 20. 0% Operating profits 10. 0% Less: Interest expense 3. 3% Net Profits before taxes 6. 7% 9. 4% Less: Taxes 2. 7% Net profits after taxes 4. 0% 6. 3% . 6% 3. 6% 23. 2% 10. 9% 1. 5% 3. 8% 5. 6% Sales have declined and cost of goods sold has increased as a percentage of sales, probably due to a loss of productive efficiency. Operating expenses have decreased as a percent of sales; this appears favorable unless this decline has contributed toward the fall in sales. The level of interest as a percentage of sales has increased significantly; this is verified by the high debt measures in problem 2-15 and suggests that the firm has too much debt. Further analysis should be directed at the increased cost of goods sold and the high debt level. 2-17 a. LG 4, 5: The Relationship Between Financial leverage and Profitability (1) total liabilities total assets $1,000,000 Debt ratioPelican ? ? . 10 ? 10% $10,000,000 $5,000,000 Debt ratioTimberland ? ? . 50 ? 50% $10,000,000 Debt ratio ? (2) earning before interest and taxes interest $6,250,000 Times interest earnedPelican ? 62. 5 $100,000 $6,250,000 Times interest earnedTimberland ? ? 12. 5 $500,000 Times interest earned ? Timberland has a much higher degree of financial leverage than does Pelican. As a result Timberland's earnings will be more volatile, causing the common stock owners to face greater risk. This additional risk is supported by the significantly lower times interest earned ratio of Timberland. Pelican can face a very large reduction in net income and still be able to cover its interest expense. b. (1) operating profit sales $6,250,000 Operating profit marginPelican ? ? . 25 ? 5% $25,000,000 $6,250,000 Operating profit marginTimberland ? ? . 25 ? 25% $25,000,000 Operating profit margin ? (2) net income sales $3,690,000 Net profit marginPelican ? ? . 1476 ? 14. 76% $25,000,000 $3,450,000 Net profit marginTimberland ? ? . 138 ? 13. 80% $25,000,000 Net profit margin ? (3) net profit after taxes total assets $3,690,000 Return on assetsPelican ? ? . 369 ? 36. 9% $10,000,000 $3,450,000 Return on assetsTimberland ? ? . 345 ? 34. 5% $10,000,000 Return on assets ? (4) net profit after taxes stockholders equity $3,690,000 Return on equityPelican ? ? . 41 ? 41. % $9,000,000 $3,450,000 Return on equityTimberland ? ? . 69 ? 69. 0% $5,000,000 Return on equity ? Pelican is more profitable than Timberland, as shown by the higher operating profit margin, net profit margin, and return on assets. However, the return on equity for Timberland is higher than that of Pelican. (c) Even though Pelican is more profitable, Timberland has a higher ROE than Pelican due to the additional financial leverage risk. The lower profits of Timberland are due to the fact that interest expense is deducted from EBIT. Timberland has $500,000 of interest expense to Pelican's $100,000. Even after the tax shield from the interest tax deduction ($500,000 x . 40 = $200,000) Timberland's profits are less than Pelican's by $240,000. Since Timberland has a higher relative amount of debt, the stockholders' equity is proportionally reduced resulting in the higher return to equity than that obtained by Pelican. The higher ROE is at the expense of higher levels of financial risk faced by Timberland equity holders. 2-18 a. LG 6: Ratio Proficiency Gross profit ? sales ? gross profit margin Gross profit ? $40,000,000 ? .8 ? $32,000,000 Cost of goods sold ? sales - gross profit Cost of goods sold ? 40,000,000 - $32,000,000 ? $8,000,000 b. c. Operating profit ? sales ? operating profit margin Operating profit ? $40,000,000 ? .35 ? $14,000,000 Operating expenses ? gross profit - operating profit Operating expenses ? $32,000,000 - $14,000,000 ? $18,000,000 Net profit ? sales ? net profit margin ? $40,000,000 ? .08 ? $3,200,000 d. e. f. Total assets ? g. sales $40,000,000 ? ? $20,000,000 total asset turnover 2 net income $3,200,000 ? ? $16,000,000 ROE . 20 Total equity ? h. Accounts receivable ? average collection period ? Accounts receivable ? 62. 2days ? 2-19 a. sales 365 40,000,000 ? 62. 2 ? $111,111 ? $6,911,104 360 LG 6: Cross-Sectional Ratio Analysis Fox Manufacturing Company Ratio Analysis Industry Average 2003 2. 35 . 87 4. 55 times 35. 3 days 1. 09 Actual 2003 1. 84 . 75 5. 61 times 20. 5 days 1. 47 Current ratio Quick ratio Inventory turnover Average collection period Total asset turnover Debt ratio Times interest earned Gross profit margin Operating profit margin Net profit margin Return on total assets (ROA) Return on common equity (ROE) Earnings per share .30 . 55 12. 3 . 202 . 135 . 091 . 099 . 167 $3. 10 8. 0 . 233 . 133 . 072 . 105 . 34 $2. 15 Liquidity: The current and quick ratios show a weaker position relative to the industry average. Activity: All activity ratios indicate a faster turnover of assets compared to the industry. Further analysis is necessary to determine whether the firm is in a weaker or stronger position than the industry. A higher inventory turnover ratio may indicate low inventory, resulting in stockouts and lost sales. A shorter average collection period may indicate extremely efficient receivables management, an overly zealous credit department, or credit terms which prohibit growth in sales. Debt: The firm uses more debt than the average firm, resulting in higher interest obligations which could reduce its ability to meet other financial obligations. Profitability: The firm has a higher gross profit margin than the industry, indicating either a higher sales price or a lower cost of goods sold. The operating profit margin is in line with the industry, but the net profit margin is lower than industry, an indication that expenses other than cost of goods sold are higher than the industry. Most likely, the damaging factor is high interest expenses due to a greater than average amount of debt. The increased leverage, however, magnifies the return the owners receive, as evidenced by the superior ROE. b. Fox Manufacturing Company needs improvement in its liquidity ratios and possibly a reduction in its total liabilities. The firm is more highly leveraged than the average firm in its industry and, therefore, has more financial risk. The profitability of the firm is lower than average but is enhanced by the use of debt in the capital structure, resulting in a superior ROE. LG 6: Financial Statement Analysis 2-20 a. Ratio Analysis Zach Industries Industry Actual Average 2002 1. 80 1. 84 . 0. 78 . 38 2. 50 2. 59 37 days 36 days 65% 67% Actual 2003 1. 04 2. 33 56 days 61. 3% Current ratio Quick ratio Inventory turnover Average collection period Debt ratio Times interest earned Gross profit margin Net profit margin Return on total assets Return on common equity Market/book ratio b. (1) 3. 8 38% 3. 5% 4. 0% 9. 5% 1. 1 4. 0 40% 3. 6% 4. 0% 8. 0% 1. 2 2. 8 34% 4. 1% 4. 4% 11. 3% 1. 3 Liquidity: Zach Industries' liquidity position has deteriorated from 2002 to 2003 and is inferior to the industry average. The firm may not be able to satisfy shortterm obligations as they come due. Activity: Zach Industries' ability to convert assets into cash has deteriorated from 2002 to 2003. Examination into the cause of the 21-day increase in the average collection period is warranted. Inventory turnover has also decreased for the period under review and is fair compared to industry. The firm may be holding slightly excessive inventory. Debt: Zach Industries' long-term debt position has improved since 2002 and is below average. Zach Industries’ ability to service interest payments has deteriorated and is below industry. Profitability: Although Zach Industries' gross profit margin is below its industry average, indicating high cost of goods sold, the firm has a superior net profit margin in comparison to average. The firm has lower than average operating expenses. The firm has a superior return on investment and return on equity in comparison to the industry and shows an upward trend. Market: Zach Industries' increase in their market price relative to their book value per share indicates that the firm’s performance has been interpreted as more positive in 2003 than in 2002 and it is a little higher than the industry. (2) (3) (4) (5) Overall, the firm maintains superior profitability at the risk of illiquidity. Investigation into the management of accounts receivable and inventory is warranted. 2-21 LG 6: Integrative–Complete Ratio Analysis Ratio Analysis Sterling Company Industry Actual 2002 1. 55 Ratio Current ratio Actual 2001 1. 40 Actual 2003 1. 67 Average 2003 1. 85 TS: CS: TS: CS: Time-series Cross-sectional Improving Fair Quick ratio 1. 00 .92 .88 1. 05 TS: Deteriorating CS: Poor Inventory turnover 9. 52 9. 21 7. 89 8. 60 TS: Deteriorating CS: Fair TS: Improving CS: Good Average collection period 45. 0 days 36. 4 days 28. 8 days 35 days Ratio Average payment period Industry Actual Actual 2001 2002 58. 5 days 60. 8 days Actual 2003 52. 3 days Average TS: Time-series 2003 CS: Cross-sectional 45. 8 days TS: Unstable CS: Poor 0. 74 TS: Improving CS: Good TS: Increasing CS: Fair TS: Deteriorating CS: Poor TS: Deteriorating CS: Poor TS: Deteriorating CS: Good TS: Improving CS: Good TS: Stable CS: Good TS: Improving CS: Good Total asset turnover 0. 74 0. 80 .83 Debt ratio 0. 20 0. 20 0. 35 0. 30 Times interest earned 8. 2 7. 3 6. 5 8. 0 Fixed payment coverage ratio Gross profit margin 4. 5 4. 2 2. 7 4. 2 0. 30 0. 27 0. 25 0. 25 Operating profit margin Net profit margin . 12 0. 12 0. 13 0. 10 0. 067 0. 067 0. 066 0. 058 Return on total assets (ROA) 0. 049 0. 054 0. 055 0. 043 Return on common Equity (ROE) 0. 066 Earnings per share (EPS) Price/earnings (P/E) Market/book ratio (M/B) $1. 75 TS: Improving 0. 073 0. 085 $2. 20 $3. 05 0. 072 $1. 50 CS: Good TS: Improving CS: Good TS: Deteriorating CS: Poor TS: Deteriorating CS: Good 12. 0 10. 5 9. 0 11. 2 1. 20 1. 05 1. 16 1. 10 Liquidity: Sterling Company's overall liquidity as reflected by the current ratio, net working capital, and acid-test ratio appears to have remained relatively stable but is below the industry average. Activity: The activity of accounts receivable has improved, but inventory turnover has deteriorated and is currently below the industry average. The firm's average payment period appears to have improved from 2001, although the firm is still paying more slowly than the average company. Debt: The firm's debt ratios have increased from 2001 and are very close to the industry averages, indicating currently acceptable values but an undesirable trend. The firm's fixed payment coverage has declined and is below the industry average figure, indicating a deterioration in servicing ability. Profitability: The firm's gross profit margin, while in line with the industry average, has declined, probably due to higher cost of goods sold. The operating and net profit margins have been stable and are also in the range of industry averages. Both the return on total assets and return on equity appear to have improved slightly and are better than the industry averages. Earnings per share made a significant increase in 2002 and 2003. The P/E ratio indicates a decreasing degree of investor confidence in the firm's future earnings potential, perhaps due to the increased debt load and higher servicing equirements. Market: The firm's price to earnings ratio was good in 2001 but has fallen significantly over 2002 and 2003. The ratio is well below industry average. The market to book ratio initially showed signs of weakness in 2002 but recovered some strength in 2003. The markets interpretation of Sterling’s earning ability indicates a lot of uncertainty. The fluctuation in the M/B ratio also shows signs of uncertainty. In summary, the firm needs to attend to inventory and accounts payable and should not incur added debts until its leverage and fixed-charge coverage ratios are improved. Other than these indicators, the firm appears to be doing well? especially in generating return on sales. The market seems to have some lack of confidence in the stability of Sterrling’s future. 2-22 a. 2003 Margin(%) Johnson 4. 9 Industry 4. 1 2002 Johnson Industry 2001 Johnson Industry b. x x x Turnover 2. 34 2. 15 = = = ROA(%) 11. 47 8. 82 x x x FL Multiple = 1. 85 = 1. 64 = ROE(%) 21. 21 14. 46 LG 6: DuPont System of Analysis 5. 8 4. 7 x x 2. 18 2. 13 = = 12. 64 10. 01 x x 1. 75 1. 69 = = 22. 13 16. 92 5. 9 5. 4 x x 2. 11 2. 05 = = 12. 45 11. 07 x x 1. 75 1. 67 = = 21. 79 18. 49 Profitability: Industry net profit margins are decreasing; Johnson's net profit margins have fallen less. Efficiency: Both industry’s and Johnson's asset turnover have increased. Leverage: Only Johnson shows an increase in leverage from 2002 to 2003, while the industry has had less stability. Between 2001 and 2002, leverage for the industry increased, while it decreased between 2002 and 2003. As a result of these changes, the ROE has fallen for both Johnson and the industry, but Johnson has experienced a much smaller decline in its ROE. c. Areas which require further analysis are profitability and debt. Since the total asset turnover is increasing and is superior to that of the industry, Johnson is generating an appropriate sales level for the given level of assets. But why is the net profit margin falling for both industry and Johnson? Has there been increased competition causing downward pressure on prices? Is the cost of raw materials, labor, or other expenses rising? A common-size income statement could be useful in determining the cause of the falling net profit margin. Note: Some management teams attempt to magnify returns through the use of leverage to offset declining margins. This strategy is effective only within a narrow range. A high leverage strategy may actually result in a decline in stock price due to the increased risk. 2-23 a. LG 6: Complete Ratio Analysis, Recognizing Significant Differences Home Health, Inc. Ratio Current ratio Quick ratio Inventory turnover Average collection period Total asset turnover Debt ratio Times interest earned Gross profit margin Operating profit margin Net profit margin Return on total assets Return on common equity Price/earnings ratio Market/book ratio 2002 3. 25 2. 50 12. 80 42 days 1. 40 . 45 4. 00 68% 14% 8. 3% 11. % 21. 1% 10. 7 1. 40 2003 3. 00 2. 20 10. 30 31 days 2. 00 . 62 3. 85 65% 16% 8. 1% 16. 2% 42. 6% 9. 8 1. 25 Difference
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