PICOT Statement Research on Sepsis
Sepsis is a severe, life-threatening complication of infection. It happens when infections in a different area or the body, instead a wound, the GI tract, the GU tract, or wherever germs can grow in the body causes a patient to become very ill. There is sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Those are the three main ways sepsis can be classified. It all depends on what stage the inflammation was triggered that caused changes and damage to different organ systems, in turn causing organ failure. There are a few key points this writer will list below that helps to summarize sepsis, what it is, early detection, and how to treat it. The PICOT format will be as follows.
With early detection of any infection, worsening of the disease can be stopped, or the progression slowed down. Studies have shown that with at least two of the following symptoms and a specific cause, it can fall under sepsis. A) The body temperature of 101 degrees F or below 96.8 degrees F. B) A high rate exceeding 90 beats/minute. C) Respirations of 20 breaths per minute or higher. Recognizing a decrease in urine output, an abrupt change in mental alertness, a decrease in platelet count, or difficulty breathing can all be key in the early treatment of severe sepsis. However, ruling out sepsis early in the patient's hospital stay could nip the worsening of infection in the bud right away. Ruling out sepsis especially on pneumonia patients, abdominal infections, kidney infections, or bloodstream infections is vital early on inpatients visit to decrease the risk of worsening of sepsis upon the patient's hospital stay (Tupchong, Koyfman & Foran, 2015).
Since we are the eyes and ears of the patients, nurses play a huge role in the identification, treatment, and patient teaching in the care of the patient. It is just to name a few. It is up to the nurses to identify the early symptoms of sepsis when a patient has an infection or possible infection, and report them to the doctor immediately. Then it is also up to the nurse to carry out physician's orders, and to closely monitor the patient with sepsis, all while watching for worsening of symptoms and reporting them to the doctor to help the infection to not progress to severe sepsis.
Close monitoring of the patient with an infection is essential when it comes to patient care. Monitoring the patient's labs, the patient's signs and symptoms, any open wounds, amongst many more things, is an excellent patient care when it comes to preventing sepsis altogether. Carrying out the doctors'orders such as IV antibiotics, and fluid resuscitation are all ways nurses can help in caring for a sepsis patient. Patient teaching on reporting certain things to the nurse or any healthcare provider is also vital in patient care when monitoring for infection/sepsis.
Health Care Agencies
Most sepsis cases will come in through the emergency room with signs and symptoms of infection, but a lot happens during a patient's hospital stay. For example, if a patient ends up with a line infection in the hospital, such as PICC lines, central lines, or Foley catheters Medicare and Medicaid will not usually reimburse since the disease happened in the hospital. These are preventable cases of infections causing sepsis due to inadequate nursing care.
Again, nurses are at the forefront of all hospitalized patient, rather inpatient, outpatient, or emergency room patients. Early detection of the possible primary sources of infection that have been known to cause sepsis is a nursing responsibility or practice. Nurses should be aware of signs and symptoms of sepsis and should be mindful of their hospital's criteria when ruling out sepsis, as well as knowing the policy and practices in treating sepsis. Close monitoring of the patient visually, mentally, and close monitoring of vital signs is essential in the patient's care and treatment. Paying close attention to the doctors'orders and carrying them out is primary in the nursing practice when it comes to infections and sepsis (Khatua, Mishra & Menon R, 2015).
In conclusion despite the inconsistency in related treatment methods and proper timing of the interventions identified through the literature review, all the studies which measured mortality have shown a clinically relevant reduction in mortality of patients with sepsis. EGDT and SRB have proven a significant decrease in mortality and morbidity rates if implemented.
Tupchong, K., Koyfman, A., & Foran, M. (2015). Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock: A review of the literature. African Journal Of Emergency Medicine, 5(3), 127-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afjem.2014.05.004
Khatua, D., Mishra, D., & Menon R, D. (2015). Ascites, Right Pleural Effusion and Sepsis Due to Amebic Liver Abscess -A Case Report with Review of Literature. Journal Of Medical Science And Clinical Research. http://dx.doi.org/10.18535/jmscr/v3i10.04