Perkembangan

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CADANGAN DEVISA, FINANCIAL DEEPENING DAN STABILISASI NILAI TUKAR RIIL RUPIAH AKIBAT GEJOLAK NILAI TUKAR PERDAGANGAN

Abstract

These papers analyze the influence of the international reserves and the financial deepening on the real exchange rate stabilization due to the terms of trade shock. The analysis covers 6 countries with quarterly data (Indonesia, United States, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore and South Korea during the period of 2000.1 to 2006.4). This research utilizes the international reserves mitigation and the financial deepening mitigation model.

This result shows that the reserves mitigation terms variable plays important role as the real exchange rate stabilization regarding the terms of trade shock in a common sample, but not in specific country. The mitigation effect associated with international reserves (buffer stock effect) applies only in South Korea. While for United State and Indonesia mitigation effect associated with international reserves opposite way. Even for Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore, the mitigation effect does not have significant induces real exchange rate stability.

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Furthermore, the financial deepening mitigation terms variable cannot be treated as the real exchange rate stabilization in a common sample, but not specific country. The mitigation effect associated with financial deepening (shock absorber effect) applies only in United States and Indonesian economic, while for South Korea the mitigation effect associated with the financial deepening works in opposite way. Even for Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore, the mitigation effect of financial deepening does not have significant induces real exchange rate stability.

In Indonesian economic, the financial deepening is more effective than the international reserve to create the real exchange rate stability. The shock absorber effect in Indonesia is more effective than the buffer stock effect to stabilize the real exchange rate due to the terms of trade shock.

JEL Classification: E44, F31, F32

Keywords:

International reserves, buffer stock, financial deepening, shock absorber, terms of trade shock, real exchange rate.

I. PENDAHULUAN

Perkembangan ekonomi Indonesia dewasa ini menunjukkan semakin terintegrasi dengan perekonomian dunia. Hal ini merupakan konsekuensi dari dianutnya sistem perekonomian terbuka yang dalam aktivitasnya selalu berhubungan dan tidak lepas dari fenomena hubungan internasional. Adanya keterbukaan perekonomian ini memiliki dampak pada perkembangan neraca pembayaran suatu negara yang meliputi arus perdagangan dan lalu lintas modal terhadap luar negeri suatu negara.

Salah satu bentuk aliran modal yang masuk ke dalam negeri yaitu dapat berupa devisa yang berasal dari perdagangan internasional yang dilakukan oleh negara tersebut. Meningkatnya ekspor suatu negara akan membawa keuntungan yaitu kenaikan pendapatan, kenaikan devisa, transfer modal dan makin banyaknya kesempatan kerja. Demikian pula meningkatnya impor suatu negara akan memberikan lebih banyak alternatif barang-barang yang dapat dikonsumsi dan terpenuhinya kebutuhan bahan-bahan baku penolong serta barang modal untuk kebutuhan industri di negara-negara tersebut dan transfer teknologi.

Perdagangan internasional akan terjadi pada suatu perbandingan harga tertentu yaitu antara harga ekspor dan harga impor yang sering disebut nilai tukar perdagangan (terms of trade,

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