Performance of a coded multi-carrier ds-cdma system in multi-path fading channels

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Performance of a Coded Multi-Carrier DS-CDMA System in Multi-Path Fading Channels

INTRODUCTION

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is concerned with the representation, transformation and manipulation of signals on a computer. Nowadays, DSP has become an important field, and has penetrated a wide range of application systems, such as consumer electronics, digital communications, medical imaging and so on. With the dramatic increase of the processing capability of signal processing microprocessors, it is the expectation that the importance and role of DSP is to accelerate and expand.

DSP stands for Digital Signal Processing – the basis of many areas of technology, from mobile phones to modems and multimedia PCs. A signal in this context can mean a number of different things. The term "digital" comes from "digit", meaning a number so "digital" literally means numerical. Digital Signal Processing is the science of using computers to understand these types of data. A signal is any variable that carries information.

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Examples of the types of signals of interest are

  • Speech (telephony, radio, everyday communication)
  • Biomedical signals (EEG brain signals)
  • Sound and music
  • Video and image
  • Radar signals (range and bearing).

Image processing is important in modern data storage and data transmission especially in progressive transmission of images, video coding (teleconferencing), digital libraries, and image database, remote sensing. It has to do with manipulation of images done by algorithm to produce desired images. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) improve the quality of images taken under extremely unfavourable conditions in several ways: brightness and contrast adjustment, edge detection, noise reduction, focus adjustment, motion blur reduction etc .The advantage is that image processing allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data in order to avoid problems such as the build-up of noise and signal distortion during processing.

ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS

The signal is initially generated is in the form of an analog electrical voltage or current, produced for example by a microphone or some other type of transducer. The output from the readout system of a CD (compact disc) player, the data is already in digital form. An analog signal must be converted into digital form before DSP techniques can be applied. An analog electrical voltage signal, for example, can be digitized using an electronic circuit called an analog-to-digital converter or ADC. This generates a digital output as a stream of binary numbers whose values represent the electrical voltage input to the device at each sampling instant.

Digital signal processing (DSP)-digital representation of signals and the use of digital processors to analyze, modify, or extract information from signals. Many signals in DSP are derived from analogue signals which have been sampled at regular intervals and converted into digital form.

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