Since the dawn of humanity, energy has been the driving force towards survival, continuation of society, as well as development. All sectors of modern economy are highly dependent on energy sources. The constantly expanding human needs require every day a greater amount of energy supplies. Nutritional needs, medicine, transportation, manufacture and construction are just a sample of sectors admitting huge energy requirements.
Historical data has shown, that since the very early stages of production and development, the energy source being used to cover power requirements has been the burning of hydrocarbons. Later on and until today, along with the technology development and the steady research in the field of technology, other energy sources have been assessed, such as oil, gas, coal. Today we are glad to refer to the fact, that steps have been made towards the improvement of efficiency of solar, wind and biomass power. However, still nowadays, about 80% of the total energy consumption derived from the hydrocarbon combustion. The consequences of this choice are severe and the unfortunate fact is that they are not yet fully known and predictable. Global warming leading to the dangerous phenomenon of climate change on Earth, as well as, the dominant presence of the Greenhouse effect, are raising significant sustainability issues.
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Finite sources of energy are already in a critical point. USA, which used to have under its occupation enormously reach resources, at the moment is importing more than 2/3 of its oil consumption. UK has already exhausted the North Sea oil and gas only after 40 years of its opening. According to studies carried out in 2010, the total mass of global oil from proved sources has been measured as 188,8 million tonnes, meaning a sufficiency for 46.2 years from that time. Natural gas showed a similar picture, being able to cover the needs in that rate for 58.6 years.1
The Second World War raised the awareness of the scientific community towards a new and incredibly powerful energy source, the nuclear energy. However, accidents, hazards related to radioactivity and security concerns in the link of nuclear weapons proliferation paused the development in the sector. Unfortunately, the fear of an accident was proven by Chernobyl, which led many countries to abandon their plants. Additionally, the severe earthquake and tsunami in Japan in 2011 has given rise to concerns about a potential nuclear incident.
Nowadays, the discussion about nuclear energy arises and is a really controversial issue in the scientific community, as well as in the political and socioeconomic sector. The nuclear option is a challenge for the effective regulation of decommissioning costs, radioactive waste management, security measures, as well as for the probably most important factor, which is the adaption and integration into society of the new era of energy. The world’s perspective is to discuss the development of innovative,
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