Nature for their survival

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Humans beings depend a lot on the natural resources provided by the nature for their survival. The recent period of human history differs with the earlier period in its strikingly high rate of resource utilisation. In the present environment, apart from energy the other important focus of any nation is in garnishing fresh water, one of the most precious natural resource.

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Water is required for the domestic use, industrial purpose and agriculture. With the increasing human population and depleting natural resources, as perceived by most, water is likely to be a source of major conflict in the near future. As per analysis, with the impact of global warming and population boom, by the year 2025 our world would be suffering from dramatic effects of hydrologic poverty. There would be great disputes and even war over water.

For a country, water is brought by two ways, either as precipitation over her national territory or as inflow from upstream countries in the same river basin. The use and misuse of water in the upstream countries affects its quality and usage in the downstream country.

South Asia is a region for both water abundance as well as water scarcity. The Hindukush – Himalayan region together with the ancillary mountains is one of the largest store houses of fresh water in the world with most of the nations of this sub continent depending on the same in one way or the other. However, water problem in Asia is already severe, with a large population not having access to safe drinking water.

Both India and Nepal share one of the largest geo hydrological region called the Ganga – Brahmaputra basin. Most of the major rivers of the sub basin of Ganges river originates from Nepal and thus are trans boundary in nature. Nepal occupies 13 percent of the total drainage of Ganges basin and in terms of annual water flow; it contributes up to 45 percent. In dry seasons, Nepal’s contribution to the total run off is almost 70 percent[1]. The hydrological features bind both India and Nepal geographically as far as water resource is concerned. There is considerable scope for joint endeavour between both the nations on issues pertaining to water resource development and water management. However various issues relating to the same has not been smooth .The geopolitical influence, big small country syndrome, failure to understand each other’s sensitiveness and negative approach has led to a situation which may become a source of future conflict and a major issue in shaping the eventualities between both the countries.

METHODOLOGY

Statement of Problem

This dissertation attempts to analyse the genesis of the problem with regard to the Indo – Nepal Mahakali treaty and suggest measures to resolve the deepening divide.

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