Natural Recycling Waste | Construction Dissertations

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Natural Recycling Waste

Introduction

For many years peoples have been trying to keep the environmental clean and mention the natural balance of life. The scientific studies provide us the information and methods to achieve these objectives and the recycling of waste and by product materials represent the main role in these studies [1-4]. As a result of reconstruction of existing buildings and pavements, wars and natural disasters such as earthquakes the amount of construction and demolition materials are increasing every year.

At the same time approval of additional facilities for waste disposal or treatment are become more difficult to obtain. Furthermore increasing restrictive environmental regulations have made waste disposal more difficult and expensive. Also the available natural aggregate in some countries decreases and may be become insufficient for the construction projects in these countries in the future [5]. So, the reuse of construction and demolition materials in construction has benefits not only in reducing the amount of materials requiring disposal but also can provide construction materials with significant saving of the original materials.

According to the third Building Waste Monitoring Report [6], there is an increase in the recorded amount of building waste in the sectors of the building debris, road scarification and building site waste. It has arisen in Germany by 11.5 million tons, from 77.1 million tons in the period 1997/1998 to 88.6 million tons in the period 1999/2000. According to Rahlwes and Schmidt [7, 8], for concrete only, the annual crushed concrete quantity in west Germany only is about 30 million tones and in the European Union is approximately 130 million ton. Due to intensive building activities in the last decades, these amounts are expected to considerably increase after the year 2000.

Figure 1.1: Recycled Aggregate

The properties of recycled coarse aggregate with a grain size above 4 mm and its reuse in concrete production and pavements construction have been evaluated and described in many.

It has been estimated that approximately 50 million tons of concrete are currently demolished each year in the European Economic Communities [1], Equivalent figures are 60 million tons in the United States ([2], [3]), and in Japan [12] the total quantity of concrete debris available for recycling on some scale is about 10 to 12 million tons. Very little demolished concrete is currently recycled or reused anywhere in the world. The small quantity which is recovered is mainly reused as unstabilized base or subbase in highway construction.

The rest is dumped or disposed of as fill. For Environmental and other reasons the number of readily accessible disposal sites around major cities in the world has decreased in recent years. Both disposals volume and maximum sizes of wastes have been restricted. In Japan disposal charges from USD 3 to 10 per ton are not uncommon. Moreover, distances between demolition sites and disposal areas have become larger and transportation costs higher.

At the same time critical shortages of good natural"

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