Metabolism is an essential process of chemical reactions, needed for energy, that occurs inside the cells that function throughout the body. One of the most widespread metabolic diseases is diabetes. Diabetes is considered a chronic disease with several pathogenic processes that, range from autoimmune destruction of the -cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action (American Diabetes Association 2010, p. S62). My six-foot, 210 pounds, 77-year-old male client suffered major consequences from the deadly, chronic disease of diabetes.
The cause of type one diabetes is an autoimmune disorder where there is an absolute deficiency in insulin ( -cells) secretion from the pancreas endocrine cells, also known as, the islets of Langerhans. Markers of the immune destruction of the -cell include islet cell autoantibodies, autoantibodies to insulin, autoantibodies to [the enzyme] GAD (GAD65), and autoantibodies to the tyrosine phosphatases IA-2 and IA-2 (American Diabetes Association 2010, p. S63). GAD65 and tyrosine phosphatases IA-2 and IA-2 are both antibodies that are used to diagnose type one diabetes. Type two diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and is referred to as, insulin resistant or non-insulin dependent.
Glucose is abundant throughout the blood and isnt taken up into the cells due to inability to use the insulin properly; yet, -cells are not destroyed in type two. Majority of people diagnosed with type two diabetes are obese. Gestational diabetes is defined as, any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy (American Diabetes Association 2010, p. S65). This type of diabetes is similar to type two; yet, when birth of the child occurs, the gestational diabetes usually disappears.
Diabetes impacts many different processes that occur inside the body as well as outside. The things most impacted by diabetes, that have also caused a major toll on my clients body, are; nutrition, fluid and electrolyte balance, tissue-integrity, mobility, wound-healing, and perfusion. The biggest problems faced by upcoming diabetics today, according to Waqas Samis review article, Effects of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review, food choices, size of portions and sedentary lifestyle have increased dramatically that resulted in high risk of obesity (Sami 2017, p. 67). With diabetes, a bad nutritious pattern can lead to major complications.
The most basic diet for diabetics is the consistent carb diet. This diet includes eating the same amount of carbohydrates at each meal. Usually, a dietitian will help pick out an amount right for the individual based on their blood sugar, weight, and activity levels. Many people fear that they will have to completely stop eating foods they love, when in reality, they just need to eat smaller portions or eat them less often.
Fluid and electrolyte imbalances are another major concern for diabetic patients. An increase in blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) causes the kidneys to work overtime to try and excrete the excess glucose. This excretion happens through urine, producing polyuria. When there is an increase in urinary output,
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