Major corporate ethical disasters impacting the environment

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1.1 Introduction

Major corporate ethical disasters impacting the environment, human resources, and the community have heightened the demand for public firms to voluntarily disclose their CSR activities for stakeholders. As a result, CSR has become more than an important issue in the business world (Waller & Lanis 2009).

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In addition, CSR disclosure is an extension of the financial disclosure system, which reflects the wider anticipation of society concerning the role of the business community in the economy. Furthermore, with the rapid collapse of cross-border economic barriers and the globalization of business, progressively the role of CSR is being debated in an international arena (van der Laan Smith, Adhikari & Tondkar 2005). The WBSCD[2] (2000) (as cited in (May & Khare 2008, p. 240)) defined CSR as: Also, Mathews (1993, p. 64) has defined CSR disclosure as:

According to these definitions, CSR activities and disclosure play a relevant role in OP[3]. In addition, CSR includes many activities such as community responsibilities, environmental responsibilities, employee responsibilities, investor responsibilities, customer responsibilities, and supplier responsibilities.

Many studies have emerged concerning the link between CSR and OP (Margolis & Walsh 2003; McWilliams, Siegel & Wright 2006). In the business context, Rettab, Brik & Mellahi (2009) notice that to date, there has not been a research focus on the examination of the strategic value of CSR in developing economies, despite the consensus between scholars and researchers about the impact of CSR activities disclosure creating more pressure on firms from several stakeholders to enhance their OP.

Crane et al (2005) notices that business systems differ from country to country. Therefore, this study will attempt to understand the institutional and managerial characteristics of different countries economies. In particular the institutional environment in the emerging economy of Libya has experienced dynamic changes over a short period of time (Mateos 2005). Libya is considered one of the most important producers of high quality and low sulphur oil and gas, and is strategically well placed to take advantage of the Mediterranean and European market. In addition, it is the members of the Organisation for Petroleum (World Markets Research Centre, 2002; Terterov, 2002) (as cited in (Abdulhamid et al. 2005)). Therefore, it possesses a significant world economic standing and has a unique economic and political system. During the last two decades, it was punished by the Security Council and was excluded from international investment with development almost totally frozen. However, from the year 2000 Libya has opened its commercial office in Libyan capital (Tripoli). Knipe and Venditti (2005, p.2) explain ( as cited in (Abdulhamid et al. 2005, p. 2) that. The main influential factor that leads to and regulates the attitude and behaviour of Arab societies, including Libya,

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