This chapter consists of three parts. First is introduction, next is literature reviews that review the critical points of previous researches including substantive finding as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to this similar topic. Lastly, a conclusion to this chapter. 2.2 Literature Review Research in the area of travel motives is important in understanding and predicting the factors that influence travel decision-making (Cha, S., McCleary, K.W. and Uysal, M., 1995). Motivation is theoretically viewed as â€˜a state of need, a condition that serves as a driving force to display different kinds of behavior toward certain types of activities, developing preferences, arriving at some expected satisfactory outcome. (Backman, K.F. Backman, S.J., Uysal, M. and Sunshine, K.M.,1995)’ In particular, an understanding of motivation assist marketers’ efforts to achieve and satisfy individuals’ diverse desires and needs, key elements that influence the process of travelers’ decision-making (Crompton,J.L. and McKay S.L.,1997). Studies of motivation thus provide to predict traveler’s personal needs, expectations, achievements, or benefits sought (Formica,S. and Uysal, M.,1998). A brief review of travel motivation research (Table 1) published in three major tourism journals â€“ Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Management, and Journal of Travel Research â€“ revealed that existing studies have covered a wide range of the spectrum, there are included the sociology of travel motivation as a stimulator of actual behavior (Dann 1977; Mansfeld 1992); travel motivation of different niche markets (Clift and Forrest 1999; Dunn Ross and Iso-Ahola 1991; Hsu, Cai, and Wong 2007; Maoz 2007; Qu and Ping 1999; Rittichainuwat 2008); the development or empirical test of travel motivation measurements (Crompton 1979; Dann 1981; Fodness 1994; Ryan and Glendon 1998); differences in motivation among tourists with varied nationality and cultural backgrounds (Kim and Prideaux 2005; Maoz 2007), number of visits (Lau and McKercher 2004), destinations and origins (Kozak 2002), sociodemographic characteristic (Jang and Wu 2006; Fleischer and Pizam 2002), or environmental attitude (Luo and Deng 2008). Authors Study Dann 1977 A sociological study of travel motivation, with a focus on the push dimension of motivation. Crompton 1979 The motivation for pleasure vacation. Seven motivation factors were identified through interviews. Dann 1981 Based on a literature review on travel motivation, seven approaches of motivation study were identified. The utilization of different terminologies was also discussed Dunn Ross and Iso-Ahola 1991 Motivation of sightseeing tourists in relation to their satisfaction Mansfeld 1992 The role of motivation in travel behavior and its complex nature Paul 1992 Travel motivation of Canadian ecotourists Parrinello 1993 Relationship between anticipation and motivation in postindustrial societies in the context of Western Europe Fodness 1994 A measurement scale was developed for leisure travel with 20 items. Lieux, weaver; and McCleary 1994 Benefit segmentation of senior tourists from the United States Gnoth 1997 Development of theoretical model on motivation and expectation formation Formica and Uysal 1998 Benefit segmentation of visitors to a cultural-historical event in Italy Ryan and Glendon 1998 The Leisure Motivation Scale was applied to tourism with British holidaymakers. An abbreviated version of holiday motivation scale with 14 items was developed.
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