GDM (gestational diabetes mellitus) is a disease that presents with carbohydrate intolerance and was initially discovered in pregnancy. In the majority of women, the postpartum glucose intolerance often gets back to normal levels, although there is a high risk of developing overt DM (diabetes mellitus) or impaired glucose tolerance later in life. Glycemic control has been achieved through various means including eating a balanced diet and taking medications such as insulin treatment.
Methods: This paper sought to establish through a PICO question the extent to which in pregnant females with GDM (P), lifestyle modification (I) compares with pharmacological therapy (C) to aid in the improvement of diabetic control and pregnancy outcomes (O). Therefore, search for the relevant articles was conducted in various online databases guided by this PICO question for secondary data.
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Results: In most of articles reviewed, an examination of the PICO question showed that lifestyle modification, through such efforts as engaging in exercise and eating a balanced diet, is an efficacious way of managing GDM similar to pharmacological therapy.
Discussion: Lifestyle modification is an integral intervention to the prevention and control of patient outcomes when it comes to GDM.
Conclusion and Recommendation: Lifestyle modification and pharmacological therapy works in achieving glycemic control in GDM. Compared to pharmacological therapy, it would be more advisable for pregnant women to embrace lifestyle modification as the most preferred means of achieving glycemic or diabetic control for improved pregnancy outcomes.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy with a reported prevalence of as high as sixteen percent, a rate that is on the rise across the globe (Wang et al., 2015). Maternal hyperglycemia has been established as causing a significantly high glucose transfer to the fetus, which occasions the overgrowth of the insulin-sensitive tissues and fetal hyperinsulinemia (Asemi, Samimi, Tabassi & Esmaillzadeh, 2014). The resultant excessive fetal growth causes shoulder dystopia, heightened trauma at birth, or even perinatal deaths. Obesity and being overweight before pregnancy presents a risk factor for GDM, enhancing the probability of adverse pregnancy outcome for mothers and babies (Wang et al., 2017).
Despite the fact that medical nutritional therapy (MNT) comes across an one of the cornerstone approaches to treating women with GDM, limited information exists as to the allowance of evidence-based recommendations concerning certain nutritional approaches that include control of fiber content or nutrient distribution in the management of GDM (Asemi, Samimi, Tabassi & Esmaillzadeh, 2014). Besides limited information on dietary approaches to the regulation of outcomes in women with GDM, other factors such as gestational weight issues need to be addressed more for improved GDM-related pregnancy outcomes.
Furthermore, even if regular exercise has been established as potentially reducing the risk of developing GDM, its efficacy still remains controversial (Wang et al.,
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