Initially java language is named as “Oak” in 1991, which is designed for the consumer electronic appliances. Later in 1995 the name was changed to Java. Java was developed by James Gosling, a development leader in sun micro system. Oak was redesigned in 1995 and changed the name to java for the development of the applications which can be run over internet. Using the java language, java programs can be embedded in to the html pages. Java is not only limited for the web applications, it is also useful to develop the stand alone applications. Java has a feature called OOPs, which make it more familiar. Object oriented programming replaced the old traditional techniques i.e. procedural programming.
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Characteristics of java:-
Java language is simple than the previous languages such as c and c++. Java eliminates the pointers concept which is earlier present in c and c++. Java also has a properties i.e. automatic allocation of memory and garbage collection, where as in c/c++ the garbage collection and allocation of memory will be done by the programmer which is a complex task.
All the programming languages apart from the c++ are procedural languages which are paradigm of procedures. Java programming language is object oriented because java uses the concept of the object. In java everything will depend on objects i.e. creating the objects and making objects to work together. The overall functionality of the high level program will depends on the objects. Because java is object oriented program it provides great range of reusability, modularity and flexibility.
Java uses the http and ftp which are internet protocols, in order to have access the files over the network. So by using this libraries which are in java can easily make file transfers over the network which is connected to internet.
In order to run the java programs we need interpreter. When the java programs are compiled it produces the byte code, which is machine understandable language. The byte code which is produced after the compilation is machine independent, so that it can run on any system using java interpreter. Most of the compilers will convert the high level language instructions to the low-level machine understandable language as machine can’t understand the high level instruction. The machine code can only be executed on that compiled native machine. For example a source code is compile on windows platform, the executable file produced after can’t be executed on other platforms apart from the windows. But, coming to java it is different i.e. the source code is compiled once and the executable byte code can be run on any platform using java interpreter.
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