International business administration

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Management summary

In this thesis the relationship between the predominant leadership styles in the academic literature, transformational and transactional leadership, and organization citizenship behaviour will be discussed and analyzed. In the transformational leadership  style the leader motivates and inspires followers by gaining their trust and respect. The leader communicates the goals, visions and missions in a clear way and stimulates his followers to go beyond the call of duty.

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Transactional leadership is based on an exchange relationship between the leader and followers. Followers receive rewards when they perform according to the standards and requirements set by their leader.

Organizational citizenship behaviour concerns those voluntary acts performed by  individual employees that are of a discretionary and voluntary nature and contribute to the effectiveness of the organization. However, when organizations exert citizenship pressures on their employees this might have some serious consequences on their workforce. These high levels of pressure to be a good citizen can result in job stress, work-family conflicts, work-leisure conflicts and might even result in quitting intensions among employees. This thesis will also focus on the desirability of OCBs within the organization and the dangers of citizenship pressures.

Chapter 1.Introduction to the thesis

1.1 Problem Indication

Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) has been a popular subject among several fields of study for the past couple of decades. OCBs are positive, individual and voluntary acts performed by employees which go beyond their job descriptions and are not directly rewarded or monitored (Organ, 1988). According to Katz & Kahn (1966) these kinds of behaviour are important to organizations because organizations depend on behaviour of their employees that go further than their job description even though these behaviours are not actively monitored and enforced.

Because of the voluntary nature of the positive acts the theory of OCBs seems to be very positive for both the individuals within an organization and the effectiveness of the organization as whole. OCB has been linked with loyalty, obedience, voluntarism, helping behaviours, altruism and other positive traits in many previous studies throughout the years (Bolino, Turnley, & Niehoff, 2004; Organ, Podsakoff, & MacKenzie, 2006). But recent studies have also investigated the “darker side” of OCB. The problem lies with the discretionary and voluntary nature of OCB. There are situations in which employees feel like OCB is expected of them, this citizenship pressure can lead to job stress, work conflicts and even quitting intensions (Bolino,Turnley, Gilstrap, & Suazo, 2010). The first part of this thesis will go further into the dynamics of OCB and will look at both the positive and negative side of OCB. The second part of this thesis will address the relation between leadership styles and OCB. Leadership styles are of great influence on the OCBs of employees (Bass,

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