Innovative changes in telephony devices

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Background to Research

Due to the Innovative changes in telephony devices and related technologies world wide, the time has come to analysis the quality in telephone devices and provide improved versions of communication channels. Locally the implementation of telephony services is getting increased; many new organizations are setting up their resources to make this system and its facilities available to the users. The research in the telephone industries is in progress since last many years shown a great improvement in all over the world. Previously this telephony service used PSTN [3] which uses 54 kbps channel now after the improvement and change in the technology this telephonic service shifted to internet protocol. As Internet is a widely used medium for data receiving and transfer. Now this new technology becomes Voice over IP. The concept of VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) [4] originated in about 1994, when hobbyists began to recognize the potential of sending voice data packets over the Internet rather than communicating through standard telephone service. This allows PC users to avoid long distance charges, and it was in 1994 that the first Internet Phone Software appeared. While contemporary VoIP uses a standard telephone hooked up to an Internet connection. Previous efforts in the history of VoIP required both callers to have a computer equipped with the same software, as well as a sound card and microphone. These early applications of VoIP were marked by poor sound quality and connectivity, but it was a sign that VoIP technology was useful and promising. The evolution of VoIP occurred in next few years, gradually reaching the point where some small companies were able to offer PC to phone service in about 1998. Phone to phone service soon followed, although it was often necessary to use a computer to establish the connection. Like many Internet applications in the late 1990’s, early VoIP service relied on advertising sponsorship to subsidize costs, rather than by charging customers for calls. The gradual introduction of broadband Ethernet service allowed for greater call clarity and reduced latency, although calls were still often marred by static or difficulty making connections between the Internet and PSTN (public telephone networks). However, startup VoIP companies were able to offer free calling service to customers from special locations. The breakthrough in VoIP history [9] came when hardware manufacturers such as Cisco Systems and Nortel started producing VoIP equipment that was capable of switching which means that functions that previously had been handled by a telephony service now implement in computer’s CPU and will work as “switching” a voice data packet into something that could be read by the PSTN (and vice versa) could now be done by another device, thus making VoIP hard ware less computer dependent. Once hardware started becoming more affordable, larger companies were able to implement VoIP on their internal IP networks, and long distance providers even began routing some of the calls on their networks over the Internet.

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