Identification process of human beings

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Abstract

Facial recognition is a crucial factor of everyday identification processes: human beings recognize and evaluate each other by means of the face. Whenever driving licences, identity and membership cards are checked or wherever access is controlled by security staff, the identity is verified by looking into somebody’s face. Thus, unlike other biometric features, e.g. the fingerprint or iris recognition, facial recognition is a transparent procedure well-known to human beings. However, especially in the context of the international fight against terrorism it has become obvious that the traditional way of identifying individuals is insufficient. There are certain limits to the natural recognition process carried out by human beings: The recognition performance is not only impaired by difficulties with the recognition of people from other ethnic origin or deceptions due to a different hair-do or beards, but also by subjective impression based on a person’s outward. The requirement of successful personal identification in access control and in other cases leads to using the results of biometrics. Biometrics Face recognition is a passive, non-invasive method for verifying the identity of a person, Offers the benefits of its unique facial technology in the form of customized overall solutions for the areas of access control, border control, ID-Management, search for criminals and video surveillance Face recognition has come to be an active research area with numerous applications in recent years. In this thesis, a variety of approaches for face recognition are reviewed first. These approaches are classified according to basic tasks i-e Face Detect, face Normalization, and Face recognition. Then, an implementation of the face recognition method, the Eigenface recognition approach is presented in detail as well as other face recognitions methods i-e Local Feature Analysis, Neural Networks and Automatic face processing are discussed in general.

Introduction

Ever since the birth of first mankind, human beings have continually been seeking for personal possessions. From the very basics of food and clothes, to cars, houses, and the more recent substantial property of data and information, it is becoming increasingly important that such valuable assets be sheltered by means of security control. Throughout history, the types of technologies used on the access control systems are countless. From the traditional systems such as security guards checking personal ID’s to the very fundamentals of keypads and locks and password or entry code, the focus now has moved to the more advance technologies, particularly in today’s multifaceted society. Organisations are continuously seeking for a more secure, suitable and economical way of property protection. The problem associated with traditional mechanisms is that the possessions could be lost, stolen, forgotten, or misplaced. Furthermore, once in control of the identifying possession, any other “unauthorised” person could abuse the privileges of the authorised user. Therefore there is a need of another approach to properly differentiate the correct (right) person from an impostor by positive identification of the person seeking access. Biometrics is one rising development in the field of access control system that provides true identification.

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