How Gender Group Health Can Be Improved In Regards To Ageing

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Choose one gender group and critically discuss how their health outcomes can be improved in regards to ageing.


Wound infection post-surgery, now preferably known as Surgical Site Infection (SSI) refers to infections at or near a surgical site within 30 days after surgery or within one year, if the procedure involved insertion of an implant (Illingworth et al., 2013; Owens and Stoessel 2008). While definite statistics of the incidence of SSI are complicated given the gamut of surgical procedures, environment and patients, available data indicate that SSI contributes to more than 15% of reported Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) for all patients and about 38% for surgical patients (Campbell et al., 2013; Owens and Stoessel, 2008; Reichman and Greenberg, 2009). Also, data from across Europe indicate that, depending on surgical procedure and/or surveillance methods used, incidence of SSI may be as high as 20% for all surgical procedures (Leaper et al., 2004).

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Although, HAIs generally, and SSI are relatively less common in Orthopaedic surgery, compared with other surgical procedures (Johnson et al., 2013), however, when they do occur, osteo-articular infections for example, can be very difficult to treat, with significant risk of lifelong recurrence (Faruqui and Choubey, 2014). SSI leads to significantly higher costs of care from longer hospital stays; it poses a major burden on healthcare providers and the healthcare system, jeopardises the health outcomes of patients and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite improvements in surgical procedures and infection control techniques (Owens and Stoessel, 2008; Tao et al., 2015). Consequently, understanding evidenced-based approaches to reduce/prevent incidence of SSI has attracted significant interests from researchers, healthcare administrators and policy-makers. This essay intends to review current best-practices in prevention of SSIs and to offer recommendations for future practice within orthopaedic settings.


This review of best practices in the prevention of SSI following orthopaedic surgery is underpinned by two major reasons. One, despite the considerable improvement in surgical procedures and techniques in most orthopaedic settings, SSI negatively impact on patient outcomes and imposes significant cost on the healthcare system. According to a case-control study reported by Owens and Stoessel (2008), patients who suffer SSI are more likely to require readmission to hospital and have more than double the risk of death compared to patients without SSI. In addition, the median duration of hospitalisation required due to SSI was put at 11 days and the extra cost to the healthcare system estimated at €325 per day (Owens and Stoessel, 2008). Two, the prevention of SSI is hardly straightforward. Given the wide range of factors that modify the risk of SSI, a ‘bundle’ approach with ‘systematic attention to multiple risk factor’ is required for any effective prevention of SSI (Uçkay et al.,

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