CRITICAL REVIEW We have been given a task to write a critical review on the theme Conflict and Resolution based on the movie screened, Hotel Rwanda. This film captures the unimaginable violence of genocide by telling the true story of a person, Paul Rusesabagina, manager of the Hotel Mille Collines in Rwanda’s capital city of Kigali who fights impossible odds to save everyone he can and provide a shelter where hope survives. While the rest of the world closed its eyes, Paul opened his heart and proved that one good man can make a difference. This analysis will focuses on the types, causes and resolution of the conflicts in the movie and also my personal view on its conflicts and resolution process. As what I have learnt, conflicts can be derived as an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals. It exists when two people wish to carry out acts which are mutually inconsistent. They may both want to do the same thing, such as eat the same apple, or they may want to do different things where the different things are mutually incompatible, such as when they both want to stay together but one wants to go to the cinema and the other to stay at home. A conflict is resolved when some mutually compatible set of actions is worked out. The definition of conflict can be extended from individuals to groups (such as states or nations), and more than two parties can be involved in the conflict. The principles remain the same. “(M. Nicholson: Rationality and the Analysis of International Conflict. 1992:11) There are three types of conflicts: interpersonal, intranational and international conflicts. Interpersonal conflict occurs when two or more individuals who must work together fail to share the same views, and have different interests or goals and it can be defined by the focus and source of the conflict. Trough this movie, there are several interpersonal conflicts that occurred. Paul had conflict with his hotel employees when all of them rebel and did not do their job; no housekeeping and no cooking. They all refused to work because their boss gone to close up the staff of Kivu Lodge as they have fled and give power to Paul but they did not seem to believe it and laugh at him when he said that he is a manager. As for resolution, Paul asked Sabena Airlines President, Mr. Tillens a favour. He asked Mr. Tillens to send him a letter from Belgium to show that the hotel is still working made them works. Paul also threatened his hotel staffs by saying “if you don’t want to work for me and would rather be out there, then leave now. By doing that, the workers continued their job and the hotel operates like usual. The other interpersonal conflict in this movie is when the Hutu army asked Paul to shoot his family when they all were captured by the Hutu militia. This is because the Hutu army knew that they are Tutsi and wanted them to die. In order to save them, Paul bribes them with money and alcohol. Similarly, Paul has to bribe George Rutaganda, a friendly supplier to the hotel who also is the local leader of Interahamwe, a brutal anti – Tutsi militia with costly cigar in order to get goods and food supplies for the hotel. Furthermore, Paul has to choose between his family and neighbours. Tatiana urges Paul to use his influence to help local Tutsis, who are being harassed and beaten with increasing frequency, but Paul will only use the political capital he has built up to help his own family, if and when they need it. However, he finds that his conscience would not allow him to watch as the innocent are slaughtered, and before long, the hotel has become a well-appointed refugee camp. Another conflict that happened in this movie is intranational conflict whereas it happens between parties in a certain country. As what shown in Hotel Rwanda, we can see Hutus and Tutsis are having conflicts and they outbreak genocide at Kigali in 1994. In the film, it is said that the Tutsis were collaborators for the Belgians colonists and they are minor, where the Hutus are the majority. Belgians use Tutsi to run the country but when they left, they give powers to Hutu and at this time Hutu took revenge. Consequently, the Civil War started. Soon enough, the violence escalates, and the Hutus begin their genocide of the Tutsis. The genocide started when President Juvenal Habyarimana was been killed after he agreed to sign the peace agreement and it was told that the Tutsi rebels killed him by shooting the plane from the sky. This context would have created a situation of crisis and fear bringing about the security dilemma of to kill or to be killed that would have provoked the extermination of Tutsi. From the incident, the Interahamwe grab the chance and gave revenge to Tutsi by killing all the Tutsis. Despite the UN is The UN Peacekeeping forces, led by Canadian Colonel Oliver, are unable to take assertive action against the Interahamwe since they are forbidden to intervene in the genocide. International conflicts can be best described as conflicts that occur between two or more nation. In this movie, the international conflict shown is the discrimination against Africans or in other mean are the black people. As what I can see in the film, the foreign nationals are evacuated, but the Rwandans are left behind just because they are Africans, they are black and not even a nigger. Colonel Oliver did said that Africans are not worth a single vote to the Americans, British or French and they think that Rwandans are worthless. The United States of America also forbid the United Nations to help the Rwandans. When the Europeans are putting together an intervention force, they only save the foreigners and left the Rwandans fight alone for the sake of their life. Mainly, there is no real resolution to this conflict, however Paul asked the rest of them to call their relatives to hold tight their hand and as if they lose it, they will die. Due to that, some refugees, including Paul's family, could be saved. When the UN forces attempt to evacuate that group of refugees, they are ambushed and must turn back. In a last-ditch effort to save the refugees, Paul pleads with the Rwandan Army General, Augustin Bizimungu for assistance. However, when Paul's bribes no longer work, he blackmails the General with threats of being tried as a war criminal. Soon after, the family and the hotel refugees are finally able to leave the besieged hotel in a UN convoy. They travel through retreating masses of refugees and militia to reach safety behind Tutsi rebel lines. As I watch and analyse the movie, I think that the conflicts in Rwanda can be solved in more better and wise way. However I like the way Paul solved some of the conflicts. In the opening scenes, Rusesabagina comes across as little more than a subservient functionary of the hotel’s European corporate owners. He is a well heeled concierge, catering to the whims of the rich guests with the best food and goods available through trades and bribes within his well lubricated network of connections. Initially, he is in denial of the developing brutality and thinks himself to be insulated and protected by his contacts in high places and the good will of his employers. That trust quickly withers as the mayhem comes closer and he and his family are directly threatened. At one point, a gun is shoved into his hand and he is ordered to shoot his wife and children. His ability to negotiate the situation is the thin membrane of protection against that anguished outcome. Watching Rusesabagina effectively maneuver and manipulate the situation as best he could in order to save his amily and neighbours’ life makes me adore his way. Besides, I think that the UN did not do their job as well as they could in protecting the people. As what I have read, the US forbids the UN from helping those Rwandans as they did not want their economy down. It is because helping those countries which is in war needs a lot of energy, money and time and that is why the US did not want to help the Rwandans. I think that UN should be more protective and play their roles when the time comes. REFERENCES Definition of Conflicts. Retrieved August 14, 2010 from www. ni-muenster. de/... /docs/1)%20Conflict%20definition. doc Summary of Hotel Rwanda. Retrieved August 15, 2010 from http://www. fandango. com/hotelrwanda_v304411/summary United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda. Retrieved August 15, 2010 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/United_Nations_Assistance_Mission_for_Rwanda Rwandan Genocide. Retrieved August 15, 2010 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Rwandan_Genocide Benjamin R. D. (2005, February). Hotel Rwanda and the Guerrilla Negotiator. Retrieved August 14, 2010 from http://www. mediate. com/articles/benjamin18. cfm
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