Approximately sixty-two percent of women in the United States use contraception. Among the sixty-two percent of women, twenty-eight percent of them use birth control pills (Jones, Mosher, & Daniels, 2012). Contraceptives, more commonly referred to as birth control, contain estrogen and progestin hormones which ultimately prevent pregnancy.
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These hormones avert ovulation from occurring. It also thickens the mucus around the cervix, making it difficult for sperm to enter the uterus and reach a released egg. These contraceptives may be very helpful for women who do not want to be impregnated. However, they do come with some unpleasant side effects, both short term and long term. They affect hormones and may cause pain, irritation, and mood swings. They also may cause some more serious diseases and forms of cancer. Estrogen and progesterone are important components of the female body. Estrogen has many functions including, physical changes during puberty, assistance in control of menstrual cycle, maintaining cholesterol levels, protecting bone health, and brain mechanisms (mood).
Estrogen operates throughout the body and mainly derives from the ovaries (Estrogen, 2018). Levels of estrogen must remain balanced in order to maintain a state of comfort for women. Progesterone is a hormone that the body naturally produces. Progestin is the man-made variant hormone of progesterone. It acts very similarly but is not identical to the authentic version. Progesterone is secreted by the corpus luteum and triggers the lining of the endometrium to thicken to accept a fertilized egg, (Progesterone, 2018). The body will not ovulate if high levels of progesterone are being produced hence, the segment of progestin incorporated in some contraceptives.
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