Contents Homosexuals and current Scenario of Egypt: International Human Rights and Social Justice for Homosexuals: Human Rights and Social Justice at Country Level: Violation of Country Law: History of Homosexuality in Egypt: Perpetrators of Homosexuality: Primary motivation orobjective of the violations: Consensus on the Crises and Compensation of the Victims: Gay and Lesbian Rights and International Community: LGBT rights in Egypt: Individual Case (Wissam Abyad Prosecution) Conclusion: Bibliography
Homosexuals and current Scenario of Egypt:
The Egyptian Government dealt homosexuals in cruel way for stopping the rising popularity of Religious activist groups such as Ikhwan-al-Muslimeen. Government of Egypt has used courts for holding and torture of Gay men (laceholder1). This policy of Government got wide support from the public and for this reason allowed the Rule to shore up its Islamic Qualifications (Menyawi, September 1, 2006). The situation of Ikhwan-al-Musleemeen is also considered that homosexuality is the violation of Islamic law. For this reason Ikhwan-al-Musleemeen supported the Government attacks on Gay men. Such Emergency courts which were previously used for the prosecution of the religious fundamentalists now these courts are using for detain and tortured of the gay men. That is why the destination of Religious fundamentalists and gay men are inseparably linked. It seems not plausible that the Ikhwan-al-Musleemeen make a strategically coalition with Gay Men. Ikhwan-al-Musleemeen should understand that the government is manipulating their Homophobia and Government also prosecuted Fundamentalists. In the United States a narrative is used i.e. â€œcoming out from the closetâ€ for the LGBT but deploying this narrative in Egypt is an entirely different social and cultural environment from the United States would have significantly diverse and adverse consequences (MENYAWI). So by coming out with a homosexual identity, it is likely to construct a new group in the society which became minority. This group came however under close and careful examination by the Government. Egyptian Government has banished and subjugates this minority instead of embracing and providing support and empathy. It is evident in second public campaign against homosexuals, in which Government gathered about 62 apparently Gay Men and brought them at earth System Science Center (ESSC). The cops stood outside the ESSC and tease them and yelling at them by saying: â€œLook at them, faggots! This country is become full of faggots!â€ the declaration of cops likely to infer something reality about these men. At the Appeals Court of Egypt in July 2003, Moâ€™azer El-Marsafy, judge of the court disciplined the defendants by saying, â€œWe are so offended by you and we cannot even glance at you. You did a very main Sin of Religion. â€œSocial scenario changes over time to time. Such culture which remain fixed, do not develop and grow must be go down because of their rigidity. The problem with the fundamentalist that they measure us with the same yard stick by which they are using for themselves or like such yard sticks which their forefathers told them about. Fundamentalist uses such interpretation of reality and pretends to us even more unknown, restricted and hostileâ€. (MÃ¡rquez, 8 December 1982) â€œHe stared me from up to down and said, are you a theist?â€ I was shocked; I do not have words to say something. I know, I have more ethical values, righteousness than that guy. I know how stronger my relationship with God about which he do not know. But according to him I am just a punished person or eviler than an accused person, a ghost, because I am homosexualâ€. (Amgad, 2004)
(Amgad, 2004)International Human Rights and Social Justice for Homosexuals:
Human Rights for homosexual have been expressed by Navi Pillay, High Commissioner for Human Rights and by Secretary General of United Nations, Ban Ki Moon (Association). A revolutionary speech by Secretary General in December 2010 delivered on LGBT equality in New York for calling an international legalization of homosexuality and takes other measures for handle the violence and the discrimination against LGBTâ€™s. According to him, since men and women are equal, we discard discrimination as a whole and particular discrimination centered on sexual orientation and sex identity. He said, it is not necessary to create new International laws or LGBT-specific Rights, for the protection of the LGBT people from violence and discrimination. It is the legal obligation of the state to safeguard the LGBT people like the other people living in the country. A state must follow the Human International Rights Law and they must be agreed on International human rights Treatise. All people who live in the state must enjoy the safety given by the International Human Rights Law regardless of sex and sexual orientation, gender identity, include respect of rights to life, security, privacy, free from torture, subjective arrest, freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and association. The principal legal responsibilities of States to defending the Human Rights of LGBT include following duties:
- Prevention of folks from homophobic and transphobic forcefulness.
- Prevention of pain, hard, cruel, torture, heartless, inhuman and humiliating treatment.
- Cancelation of such laws which criminalize the homosexuality.
- Stop Discrimination based on gender identity and sexual orientation.
- Freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and association for all LGBT people.
In 1945, The Charter of United Nations, States: â€œIt is states in the testament of United Nations there must be respect for the fundamental rights and freedoms for all without any discrimination and distinctionâ€ Chapter I, Article 1, #3 In 1945, Universal Declaration of Hume Rights, narrates in Article # 02 â€œEvery person in the world allowed to have all the basic rights and freedoms wrote in the declaration without the discrimination and distinction of any kindâ€
Human Rights and Social Justice at Country Level:
At the country level following questions must be addressed for the sake of Human Rights and Social Justice of LGBT people (Commision):
Violation of Country Law:
The constitution of Egypt does not allow the homosexuality and it is also in Islamic law and sharia is against the homosexuality. This law did not allow people to act in this way. According to Islam, man and woman are created for each other so the homosexuality is against the natural laws.
History of Homosexuality in Egypt:
It found in that ancient Egypt also had some sort of homosexual activities around 2500 B.C. But it is probability that people did not deliberately involve in such activities. Sex orientation of anyone determines whether he/she homosexual or not. When people have implicit knowledge and they admit consciously about themselves whether he/she is homo then that person search for their partner in the society.
Perpetrators of Homosexuality:
In the Islamic state, it is sure that anyone who is homosexual is committing a crime. But in general or in in the western culture perspective, other people who perceived homosexual as the perpetrators are actually the criminals.
Primary motivation orobjective of the violations:
In the current scenario of Egypt, political unbalance in the state really causes the violations. The Government of Egypt is not stable enough to resolve such sort of issues so Government tried to solve this issue with help of religious fundamentalists and activists. The current situation of Egypt represents that the actual victims are the underprivileged homosexual people.
Consensus on the Crises and Compensation of the Victims:
The issue of homosexuality will not be resolve sufficiently until the political situation of Egypt get better. With the involvement of United Nations in the crises of Homosexuality, this crisis will end in the broader way, just like in United States. When the crises will end then there should be some steps for compensation i.e. give them rights to live safely in the society with equal human rights which all human beings are possessing.
Gay and Lesbian Rights and International Community:
Foreign Governments expressed a lot of concern about the oppression of Gays in Egypt. French President Jacques Chirac upraised fears about the behavior and attitude towards gays in Egypt. The European Parliament sentenced the attacks on these men, wanting their freedom from custody and the termination of all trails of the citizens on the bases of homosexuality. In the United States some adherents of Congress who belongs to the Democratic Party of the United States suggests a bill in the Congress for reusing any support with Egypt Free Trade Agreement due to the trail of Gays (International Communist league). This action of Democratic Party impression amid Egyptians that Gay Character and Gay Rights was an artifact of the West, which is not producing a good relationship among Gays and United States. The disapproval of the trails of the Gay men of the West shows that they are also Western. Sonia Katyal who is Associate Dean for Research points out: â€œUnexpectedly, the appearance of public, cooperative, gay identity in some portions of the world has become intensively nervous with allegations of cultural inauthenticity and corruption of west. The conflict of these diverse forces, I argued that it must be produced some sort of global and cultural crunch of sexual identity, with the help of these developments, the globalizing of gay rights dissertation and it is associated reaction is conspicuous for its chronological coincidenceâ€ The Government of Egypt is changing the direction from their social and economic failures by arranging identity discourse of Gay Men. Egyptians were unconcerned, not much interested or ignorant suddenly look around themselves Gay People, in their own population.
LGBT rights in Egypt:
According to a report, about 10% to 12% of population of Egypt is homosexual and 95% of the Egyptians also believed that their sex orientation would not be accepted by the society in which they are living because they are not feeling in the same way as others in the society. In any enacted legislation or in any Egyptian Constitution, the Discrimination and aggravation of on the behalf of Sexual orientation and gender identity has not been expressly addressed in the Past. There is no politician or organization who talks about public support of LGBT rights. However it has been practiced to send the homosexuals in prison and mental institution to convert them into the normal gender or heterosexual. These activities are traditional in the Egypt culture. Cause behind the no political party or person addressing publically for the rights of LGBT is the religious fundamentalists and activists in the Egypt Government (Watch).
Individual Case (Wissam Abyad Prosecution)
Wissam Abyad was punished for 15 months in jail of Egypt on groundless charges of â€œHabitual Debaucheryâ€. That law is nebulous, a public morality law which is practiced in Egypt for criminalize the homosexuality. Wissam went to meet a man, who he has been communicating with, on the internet. That man was a government informant and he was being used against him at his trail. All the emails and communicating messages were exchanged by the Police of Cairo. Due to this physical evident Wissam was prosecuted for 15 months. His conviction was defended late on an appeal.
Wissam came to the United States (wire) when released from the prison in Egypt last spring. He speaks out in contradiction of the human rights desecrations which are being dedicated against Gay Men in Egypt. Wissam also spoke in the support of Amnesty International Equality and Human rights Watch. A non-profit organization which propagates for equality in United States immigration Law for LGBT people, made a contact with Wissam. Wissam told that he might be able to obtain equality as the refugee in United States on the punishment he suffered because of his sexual orientation.
Member of United States and United Nations has been working to discard and illegalization based on transphobia and homophobia whether the rejection of human rights for LGBT continue all over the world today. ABOUT 30 countries have been legalized the homosexuality in last 20 years. LGBT is attaining momentum by the efforts of UN and different NGOâ€™s. It is no doubt by saying that United Nations making development toward the global presence of LGBT rights in the leadership of the Ban Ki Moon, Secretary General of United Nation. For the prosecution of homosexuals, Egypt is not only a single Muslim country. It has been happened across the Muslim world from Malaysia to Morocco. It is a big crime in Islamic Law, Sharia. The punishment of this offense is death in Iran, Pakistan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan. It is the amount of ubiquity of anti-Gay prejudice in such societies that there is no expression in Urdu, Arabic and Persian for homosexuality that is not sneering or derogatory.
The Egyptian Blogosphere: Policing Gender and Sexuality and the Consequences for Queer Emancipation. (2012). Grant Walsh-Haines; Journal of Middle East Women's Studies, 8
(3), 41-62. Amgad. (2004). Human Rights Watch interview with Amgad.
In a Time of Torture: The Assault on Justice in Egyptâ€™s Crackdown on Homosexual Conduct. Association, A. P. (n.d.). Are LGBT rights human rights? Recent developments at the United Nations
. Retrieved from www.apa.org: https://www.apa.org/international/pi/2012/06/un-matters.aspx
Commision, I. G. (n.d.). Magazines from LGBT Groups in North Africa Available Online
. Retrieved from http://iglhrc.org/: http://iglhrc.org/content/magazines-lgbt-groups-north-africa-available-online International Communist league, F. I. (n.d.). Protest Anti-Gay Persecution in Egypt!
Retrieved from http://www.icl-fi.org/: http://www.icl-fi.org/english/wv/archives/oldsite/2003/Egypt801.htm MÃ¡rquez, G. G. (8 December 1982). The Solitude of Latin America. Nobel Lecture, Oslo, Norway. MENYAWI, H. E. (n.d.). ACTIVISM FROM THE CLOSET: GAY RIGHTS STRATEGISING IN EGYPT. Menyawi, H. E. (September 1, 2006). Persecution of Homosexuals: The Egyptian Government's Trojan Horse against Religious Groups. Human Rights Brief, Volume 14, Issue 1, Fall 2006
. Rind, B. (1998). Biased Use of Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspectives on Male Homosexuality in Human Sexuality Textbooks. The Journal of Sex Research
, 397-407. Watch, H. R. (n.d.). LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, AND TRANSGENDER RIGHTS
. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/: http://www.hrw.org/topic/lgbt-rights
wire, P. n. (n.d.). Former Amnesty International Prisoner of Conscience Wins Asylum in the United States
. Retrieved from http://www.prnewswire.com/: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/former-amnesty-international-prisoner-of-conscience-wins-asylum-in-the-united-states-73959027.html