The Kathmandu Valley, bowl shaped of 651 Km2 basin areas, has gently sloping valley floor, valley plain terraces with scrap faces together with the flood plains. The valley has warm temperate-semitropical climate and intended circular shaped drainage basin with only one outlet.
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The valley is filled with the fluvio-lacustrine sediments of quaternary age, making three groundwater zones. Only one water supply operator, Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL), is serving water supply in 5 Municipalities and 48 VDCs out of 99 VDCs using 35 surface sources, 57 deep tube wells, 20 WTPs, 43 service reservoirs and operating about 1300 major valves. The portion of groundwater contribution in total production is an average of 35% in dry season and 11% in wet season with yearly average of 19% in 2011, and found decreasing to 7%, 4%, and 3% in 2016, 2019 and 2025 respectively. Water supply is found to be improved with increasing consumption rate from 41 lpcd in 2011 to 126 lpcd in 2025.If supply system is managed with project demand of 135 lpcd, the average supply duration will increase from 7 hr a day in 2011 to 23 hour a day in 2025. Foremost reasons of supplying much less compare to calculated are possibly due to inaccurate forecasting of served populations, absence of effective MIS on water infrastructure systems, and inaccurate estimation of unaccounted for water from system. Outside valley urban centers development, optimum land use planning for potential recharge, introducing micro to macro level rainwater harvesting programs and riverhead forest protection are important alternative options to minimize the gap between demand and supply of the valley.
The Kathmandu Valley is consisting of Kathmandu metropolitan city, capital of Nepal. Kathmandu, an ancient city with a varied history, consists of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur districts with five municipalities and 99 Village Development Committees. The significance of its historical development is the rise of conurbation in the valley, the design of Pagoda style architecture and high rising temples with stepped plinth basement. After liberation in 1952, the new phase of development began with remarkable change in social status, migration of people to the valley. The general trends of the urbanization remained slow till the mid sixties. Only in seventies, infrastructures like road networks, water supply systems started to develop rapidly in the city. As a result, the valley is growing rapidly and haphazardly. This is the right time to look seriously at the growing urban problems and available water resource in the valley. It is necessary to systematize the settlement, implement the town planning more scientifically and carry out the land use in proper manner so that available water resource potential could be maintained sustainably. There are various development plans for the valley,
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