DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY BLDG 501 ASSIGNMENT BY MOHAMMED O. MUBARAK U05BD1041 2010 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2010 Q1-CONCEPT OF GREEN BUILDING/ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY BUILDINGS G reen Building is a holistic approach to programming planning, designing, and constructing (or renovating) buildings and sites. Green building is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are nvironmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Green building is also known as a sustainable or high performance building. Besides that, all liabilities of materials, water and energy waste, and pollution emissions are converted into economic opportunities through the realization of environmentally sound, healthier and cost effective project. Green building design is a concept that is still at its infancy stage, but one that has been successful in utilizing different aspects of construction, planning, and building technologies that have come up to reduce the environmental impact known to be caused by buildings. The recent past has seen a lot of attention in almost all sectors which not only focus on the green building design but also on the duty of restructuring old patterns to create a healthy and more sustainable environment. Away from the green building design and the use of some building materials in favor of those considered to have little or no impact at all on the environment, the building and construction industry has also seen a shift in how new buildings are designed and meant to function. U05BD1041 / BLDG 501 Page 2 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2010 Green Architectural concept (take note of the roof lighting) Areas of application of Green Buildings There are five major areas of application of a sustainable building design, namely: 1. Sustainability 2. Materials 3. Energy efficiency 4. Land use and 5. Waste reduction Sustainability Building green does not only involve designing a structure for its present use but also for its future uses. A flexible building can be ‘renovated and recycled’ severally over its lifetime. If for whatever reason some technical issues of a construction prevent the main building to be used for a new function, the materials used in the building therefore should be designed in such a way that they will facilitate ease of reprocessing and recycling of the materials. U05BD1041 / BLDG 501 Page 3 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2010 Materials Typically, a building uses up various materials in the process of building. Green architecture minimizes the reliance on resource intensive materials and products and use earth-friendly, efficient, and recyclable materials. Green concept showing the use of insulated Curtain walls which also provides adequate daylight Energy Efficiency An equally crucial aspect of sustainable architecture is the incorporation of energy efficient conservation ways and mechanical systems. Sustainable buildings are designed in such a way that they will get rid of, or minimize the reliance on fossil fuels. Further, green designs help reduce waste by implementing viable solutions and sustainable energy strategies. U05BD1041 / BLDG 501 Page 4 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2010 Green concept showing how ventilation can be achieved with minimum use of energy Land Use The building orientation as well as the selection of a site equally has a crucial role to play in sustainable building design. Typically, a sustainable building will be located to utilize the environment and the climate. Such conditions have an impact on the efficiency of the society in general and of course the building. Waste Reduction A great amount of waste is produced by the mere process of building. Green architecture sees to it that modular systems of building, efficient material usage, as well as use of recycled products help reduce the amount of waste created. A truly green building would create very negligible amounts of waste during the building process and ultimately while in use. Therefore, the effect on the environment and on the resources is significantly reduced. U05BD1041 / BLDG 501 Page 5 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2010 Benefits of a Sustainable Building Design Basically, a sustainable building will rely on a special design, known as sustainable building design that underscores the efficient and effective use of renewable and recyclable resources in everything right from the water systems, building materials, as well as energy and heating systems. As such, it would mean that the siting, the building design, the process of construction, the maintenance of the building’s operations and so orth will create a very minimal negligible impact on the environment. A Sustainable environment can only be achieved therefore if the best building practices are effected in the sustainable building design. The design ensures that every upcoming building has to achieve sustainability measures and standards which may include reducing production of waste, reducing pollution, efficient use of resources such as energy, heat, and water and finally protecting the health of the people who will end up occupying the sustainable building eventually. The Role of a Green Builder in Green Home Building Sustainable building or green building if you like has become a widespread trend today in the midst of diminishing resources and increased awareness and concerns about the environment. U05BD1041 / BLDG 501 Page 6 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2010 It is therefore not uncommon to find a realtor become a ‘nominated green agent’ while a contractor becomes a ‘nominated green builder’. Real estate buyers today are after energyefficient sustainable homes as they have proven to be easy and cheap to maintain. In fact, it has become somewhat a show of status to buy or have a green home. Further, it is due to the realization of the importance of green buildings that even some governments, like the US government, extends tax breaks to people who own green homes. Q2- Technical problems experienced by project managers in the building production process at any construction site 1. Large construction projects, such as an office building or an industrial complex, are often too complicated for one person to manage. 2. These managers coordinate and supervise the construction process from the conceptual development stage through final construction, making sure that the project gets completed on time and within budget, therefore failure to do so become a technical problem. 3. Failure of dividing works into various segments: site preparation, including clearing and excavation of the land, installing sewage systems, and landscaping and road construction; building construction, including laying foundations and erecting the structural ramework, floors, walls, and roofs; and building systems, including protecting against fire and installing electrical, plumbing, air-conditioning, and heating systems. 4. Construction managers not been able to determine the labor requirements of the project and, in some cases, supervise or monitor the hiring and dismissal of workers. 5. They are responsible for obtaining all necessary permits and licenses and, depending upon the contractual arrangements, for directing or monitoring compliance with building and safety codes, other regulations, and requirements set by the project's insurers. . Although the work usually is not inherently dangerous, injuries can occur and construction managers must be careful while performing onsite services. U05BD1041 / BLDG 501 Page 7 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2010 Q3-REASONS WHY NIGERIA HAS NOT BEEN ABLE TO PRODUCE INDIGINOUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS NEEDEDEVEN AFTER OVER 40 YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE 1. Nigeria lacks the technological capacity to venture into the manufacture of construction materials without outside help. This is due to the poor standard of education in the country. 2. Corruption: this has to do with the disease of greediness which has infected most Nigerians in high places who might actually be able to pull this off, but end up seeing the idea of constructing indigenous construction materials as an opportunity to exploit other stakeholders (the general public included). 3. Demand and Supply: few Nigerians who have embarked on journeys to manufacture construction plants and equipments realize that there is low demand for heavy equipment in most parts of the country, which is why few users of such equipments prefer to purchase foreign equipments which they feel are more reliable. Where there is no demand, there would be no supply. 4. The interest rate of such a venture is also minimal. This problem can also be attributed to the demand and supply of indigenous construction materials. U05BD1041 / BLDG 501 Page 8 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2010 REFERENCE ? Dahiru, D. (2009): “Building Construction Lecture Notes” Department of Building, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. ? Karolides, A. (2002): “Green Building Approaches in Green Building”: Project Planning & Cost Estimating, RS Means Co Ltd; USA Pp 1 – 22. Dahiru, D. : “GREEN BUILDINGS KEY TO SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIROMENT IN NIGERIA” Department of Building, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. ? http://truthdive. com/2009/06/05/the-concept-of-green-buildings/ ? http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Construction_%28disambiguation%29 ? Boahen A 1966. Topics in West African History. London: Longman Group Limited. ? http://online. onetcenter. org/link/summary/11-9021. 00 U05BD1041 / BLDG 501 Page 9
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